The New Production of Knowledge: The Dynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies
Michael Gibbons, Professor Michael Gibbons, Camille Limoges, Helga Nowotny, Simon Schwartzman, Peter Scott, Martin Trow
SAGE, Sep 9, 1994 - Business & Economics - 179 pages
In this provocative and broad-ranging work, a distinguished team of authors argues that we are now seeing fundamental changes in the ways in which scientific, social and cultural knowledge is produced. They show how this trend marks a distinct shift towards a new mode of knowledge production which is replacing or reforming established institutions, disciplines, practices, and policies. Identifying a range of features associated with this new mode - reflexivity, transdisciplinarity, heterogeneity - the authors illustrate the connections between these features and the changing role of knowledge in social relations. While the main focus is on research and development in science and technology, the book outlines the changing dimensions of social scientific and humanities knowledge. The relations between the production of knowledge and its dissemination through education are also examined. The New Production of Knowledge places science policy and scientific knowledge in its broader context within contemporary societies. It will be essential reading for all those concerned with the changing nature of knowledge, the social study of science, educational systems, and with the relations between R & D and social, economic and technological development. -- from back cover.
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Evolution of Knowledge Production Summary
On the Phenomenology of the New Mode of Knowledge Production
The Dynamics of Mode 2 Knowledge Production
The Marketability and Commercialisation of Knowledge
Scale and Scope in Knowledge Production
Dynamic Competition and Knowledge Production
The Commercialisation of Research
Competitiveness Collaboration and Globalisation Summary
Networks Firms RD Alliances and Enterprise Webs
The Information Technology Paradigm
Some Paradoxical Consequences of Globalisation
Reconfiguring Institutions Summary
The Strain of Multifu nationality
Levels and Forms of Pluralisation
The New Economics of Production
Configurations of Knowledge
New Dimensions of Quality Control
Scale Scope and the New Mode of Knowledge Production
Massification of Research and Education Summary
Patterns of Massification in Higher Education
Colleglality Managerialism and the Fragmentation of Knowledge
Transition to the Knowledge Industries
The Changing Nature of Technology Transfer
The Case of the Humanities Summary
Similarities and Differences
Contextualisation and Meaning in the Humanities
The New Institutional Landscape of Knowledge Production
Towards Managing Socially Distributed Knowledge Summary
Three Phases or Science and Technology Policy
Rethinking Basic Assumptions
The Management of Distributed Knowledge Production
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academic activities alliances basic become behaviour boundaries centres characteristics cognitive collaboration comparative advantage competence complex context of application contextualisation continue countries created creativity criteria cultural production demand design configuration diffusion disciplinary disciplines distributed knowledge production diverse duction economies of scale edge production elite emergence environment Erich Jantsch established example function funding global globalisation growth heterogeneous higher education Human Genome Project humanities hypersonic increasing increasingly individuals information technology institutions intellectual interaction involved knowl knowledge industry laboratories less massification ments Mode 2 knowledge nature network firms organisation paradigm particular patterns Postmodernism problems production of knowledge programmes quality control range reflexivity role science and technology scientific and technological scientists sector shift skills social accountability social sciences society solution specialised knowledge specific strategic structures Tacit knowledge tech tion traditional transdisciplinary transformation trends universities values
Page 4 - Mode 2, by contrast, knowledge results from a broader range of considerations. Such knowledge is intended to be useful to someone whether in industry or government, or society more generally and this imperative is present from the beginning. Knowledge is always produced under an aspect of continuous negotiation and it will not be produced unless and until the interests of the various actors are included.
Page 3 - The Age of Social Transformation', Atlantic Monthly, 1994, vol. 274, no. 5, November, pp. 53-80. 90 Michael Gibbons and colleagues distinguish knowledges as follows : 'in Mode 1 problems are set and solved in a context governed by the, largely academic, interests of a specific community.
Page 2 - culturally concentrated knowledge' (the outcome of Mode 1) and 'socially distributed knowledge' (the outcome of Mode 2). Mode 1 is defined as: a form of knowledge production - a complex of ideas, methods, values, norms that has grown up to control the diffusion of the Newtonian model to more and more fields of enquiry and to ensure its compliance with what is considered sound scientific practice. (Gibbons et al. 1994:2) Mode 1 is what the academy would conventionally consider 'scientific...
Page vii - The new mode operates within a context of application in that prohlems are not set within a disciplinary framework. It is transdisciplinary rather than mono- or multi-disciplinary. It is carried out in non-hierarchical, heterogeneously organised forms which are essentially transient. It is not heing instimtionalised primarily within university strucmres.
Page 5 - First, it develops a distinct but evolving framework to guide problem solving efforts. This is generated and sustained in the context of application and not developed first and then applied to that context later by a different group of practitioners. The solution does not arise solely, or even mainly, from the application of knowledge that already exists. Although elements of existing knowledge must have entered into it, genuine creativity is involved and the theoretical consensus, once attained...
Page 5 - Second, because the solution comprises both empirical and theoretical components it is undeniably a contribution to knowledge, though not necessarily disciplinary knowledge. Though it has emerged from a particular context of application, transdisciplinary knowledge develops its own distinct theoretical structures, research methods, and modes of practice, though they may not be located on the prevalent disciplinary map. The effort is cumulative, though the direction of accumulation may travel in a...
Page vii - It is not being institutionalised primarily within university structures. Mode 2 involves the close interaction of many actors throughout the process of knowledge production and this means that knowledge production is becoming more socially accountable. One consequence of these changes is that Mode 2 makes use of a wider range of criteria in judging quality control. Overall, the process of knowledge production is becoming more reflexive and affects at the deepest levels what shall count as 'good...