Environmental Toxicants: Human Exposures and Their Health Effects

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Morton Lippmann
John Wiley & Sons, 2000 - Health & Fitness - 987 pages
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A comprehensive guide to assessing the health effects of environmental toxicants in nonoccupational settings

Now in a second edition, Environmental Toxicants: Human Exposures and Their Health Effects continues to offer a unique perspective on a topic that is usually focused on exposure and effects in industrial settings. Fully revised and expanded, it presents comprehensive, cutting-edge information on the effects of human exposure to selected chemicals and physical agents in nonoccupational environments. Dr. Morton Lippmann assembles expert contributions by leading authorities on each of the twenty-five environmental agents examined, providing a critical review of the accumulated evidence concerning their known or likely impact on human health, especially after long-term exposure.

Six new chapters have been added to this edition, discussing ambient particulate matter, chromium, mercury, noise, pesticides, and ultraviolet radiation. Existing chapters have been updated to include the most current information on performing risk assessments for established toxicants-from asbestos and benzene to the sick building syndrome. In the closing chapters, the authors place the discussion in a broader social and scientific context, exploring such issues as individual and community risk, environmental engineering for risk reduction, pulmonary medicine, and lessons learned in the industrial sector.

Supplemented with more than 100 illustrations and photographs, and with a view to future research trends, Environmental Toxicants: Human Exposures and Their Health Effects is an indispensable guide for public health officials, industrial hygienists, epidemiologists, and primary care physicians involved in risk assessment and management for exposed individuals and populations.
 

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Contents

Introduction and Background
1
Human Exposures and Dosimetry
7
Ingestion Exposures and GI Tract Effects
18
ExposureResponse Relationships
24
Ambient Particulate Matter
31
Extent of Population Exposures to Ambient Air PM
38
Discussion and Current Knowledge on the Health Effects of PM
57
Asbestos and Other Mineral and Vitreous Fibers
65
Some Chemical Molecular Considerations in Lead Neurotoxicity
506
References
513
Nuclear Weapons Complex
537
Medical Exposures
544
Mercury
563
Health Effects
570
Microwaves and Electromagnetic Fields
577
Current OELs and EELs for RF Radiation 582
585

Fiber Deposition in the Respiratory Tract
71
Properties of Mineral and Vitreous Fibers Relevant to Disease
81
Recapitulation
108
Benzene
121
Risk Assessment
138
Carbon Monoxide
151
Summary and Conclusions
165
Uptake and Distribution
178
Diesel Exhaust
193
Health Effects
199
Current Issues and Research Needs
230
Dioxins and Dioxinlike Chemicals
243
Toxicological Effects and Mechanism of Action
249
References
258
Drinking Water Disinfection
267
Associations of Human Disease with Drinking Water Disinfection
276
Summary and Conclusions
298
Environmental Tobacco Smoke 319
318
Health Effects of Involuntary Smoking in Children
331
Health Effects of Involuntary Smoking in Adults
345
Respiratory Symptoms and Illnesses in Adults
359
Food Constituents Additives and Contaminants
377
Substances Intentionally Added to Food
387
Food Contaminants of Industrial Origin
395
Summary and Conclusions
404
Formaldehyde and Other Aldehydes
409
SingleExposure Health Effects
418
Effects of Multiple Exposures
427
References
434
Indoor Bioaerosol Contaminants
449
Morbidity Effects 457
459
Controls
468
Lead and Compounds
481
Distribution
491
Health Effects
500
Nitrogen Oxides
595
Nitric Oxide
612
Summary and Conclusions
621
Its Effects and Control
639
General Effects of Noise
645
Summary
652
Background
661
Effects of Single Exposures to Ozone
668
Summary and Conclusions
707
Pesticides
725
Fumigants and Nematocides
733
Radon and Daughters
741
Underground Mine Radon Epidemiology
751
NIH Model
761
Acidic Aerosols and S02
771
Aluminum Arsenic Cadmium and Nickel
811
Arsenic
817
Cadmium
824
References
837
Ultraviolet Radiation
851
Populations at Special Risk
865
Risk Assessment and Education Policy
877
References
883
Volatile Organic Compounds and the Sick Building Syndrome
889
DoseResponse for Health Effects Caused by LowLevel VOC Exposure
896
Perspectives on Individual and Community Risks
905
An Environmental Engineering Perspective
921
Applications and Use
929
Conclusions 922
942
Tools for Studying Populations
955
Advice and Counseling of Patients
961
Translating the Knowledge Base
969
Product Stewardship
975
Index
981
Copyright

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About the author (2000)

MORTON LIPPMANN, PhD, is Professor of Environmental Medicine at the New York University School of Medicine, and the Director of the Research Center for the Health Risks of Ambient Particulate Matter, supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. He also directs the Human Exposure and Health Effects Research Program at New York University's Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine.

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