Eyewitnessing: The Uses of Images as Historical Evidence
What place do images hold among other kinds of historical evidence? In Eyewitnessing, Peter Burke reviews graphics, photographs, films, and other media from many countries and periods and examines their pragmatic uses. This profusely illustrated book surveys the opportunities and the challenges of using images to understand other times. In a thorough and compelling defense of the importance of the visual to history, Burke argues that images should not be considered mere reflections of their time and place, but rather extensions of the social contexts in which they were produced. The author describes and evaluates the methods by which art historians have traditionally analyzed images, and finds them insufficient to deal with the complexities of visual imagery. In developing a richer mode of visual interpretation, Burke devotes much attention to religious icons and narratives and political propaganda posters, caricatures, and maps. Eyewitnessing also addresses the economics of images—some, such as films, are commodities in themselves, and others are created to advertise other products. Concentrating on the representation of social groups, the author explores stereotypes as well as notions of foreignness and gender. In this wide-ranging, highly accessible volume, Burke helps us to understand the promise and the pitfalls of using visual evidence in the writing of history.
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Preface and Acknowledgements
Photographs and Portraits
Iconography and Iconology
Power and Protest
Material Culture through Images
Views of Society
Stereotypes of Others
From Witness to Historian
n The Cultural History of Images
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Aby Warburg advertisements American analysis approach Arnold Hauser art historian artists Barthes battle Bayeux Tapestry British called Chapter Christ classical clues contemporary context conventions critic described discussed engravings Ernst Gombrich Erwin Panofsky everyday evidence example eyewitness famous film French genre Giovanni Morelli goddess of democracy iconoclasm iconographical iconology illus illustrated images offer instance interpretation Italian Jacob Ochtervelt Jan Steen kind King landscape literary London Louis XIV material culture means Morelli Museum narrative nineteenth nineteenth-century oil on canvas onwards painter paintings Panofsky particular past peasants period photographs pictorial political portrait prints problem religious Renaissance representations represented Revolution Roland Barthes rulers scenes seen sense seventeenth seventeenth-century Dutch Siegfried Kracauer Simon Schama sitters sixteenth century social history statue stereotypes story structuralist style symbol term testimony of images texts tion tradition viewers visual vivid women woodcut