The Inductoslag Melting Process
U.S. Department of the Interior, 1982 - Electroslag process - 32 pages
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added addition alloy Analyses approximately arc melting argon atmosphere bottom Bureau of Mines CaF2 casting furnace centrifugal casting chamber charge coil conducted consumable electrode cooling copper crucible crucible segments crucible wall decrease described developed diameter effect energy established formed furnace given heat helium higher impurities increased induction inductoslag casting inductoslag melting ingot melting ingot prepared initial charge installed ladle layer length less levels limited Longitudinal lower material mechanism melting point melting rate mold molten metal molten salt needed noted obtained occurred operation oxygen partial passages pieces pool of molten position possible poured power input power supply present problem produced properties range reactive metals reduced relatively removed resulted samples scrap shown in figure shows sidefeeding similar skull slits space sponge starting stub strength sufficient surface temperature tests titanium tube tubular typical unalloyed titanium vacuum volume water-cooled copper withdrawal