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accent audible back vowels beginning Bell Bell's breath breath-glide Broad Romic buzzed character combinations consonantal Danish denote devocalised diphthongs distinct distinguish effect element Ellis English final force formed French friction front vowels German glide glide-vowel Glossic glottis heard high vowels high-front Icel Icelandic indicated initial inner intermediate labialised language larynx letters lips long vowels lowered marked mid-mixed mixed vowels modified mouth narrow and wide nasal Nomic occur off-glide open consonants ordinary outer palatalised palate pass passage phonetic pitch position possible practical produced pronounced pronunciation quantity retracted Roman alphabet rounding sentences short vowels Sievers simply soft palate sonants sound spelling Swedish syllable symbols synthesis teeth tone tongue trilled unaccented unrounded uvula varieties Visible Speech vocal voice stop voice-glide voiced consonants voiceless consonants voiceless stops whisper word-division words written
Page 199 - of the following :—b, d, f, g, h, k, 1, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, z. This leaves c, j, q, x undisposed of. We also have y, which is not required as a vowel-symbol in English. If we allow y to retain its present value, we can also retain
Page iii - Again, if our present wretched system of studying modern languages is ever to be reformed, it must be on the basis of a preliminary training in general phonetics, which would at the same time lay the foundation for a thorough practical study of the pronunciation
Page 29 - A consonant is the result of audible friction, squeezing or stopping of the breath in some part of the mouth (or occasionally of the throat). The main distinction between vowels and consonants is that while in the former the mouth configuration merely modifies the
Page 96 - The only division actually made in language is that into ' breath-groups.' We are unable to utter more than a certain number of sounds in succession, without renewing the stock of air in the lungs. These breathgroups correspond partially with the logical division into sentences: every sentence is necessarily a breath-group, but every breath-group need not be a complete sentence.
Page 29 - the narrowing or stopping of the oral passage is the foundation of the sound, and the state of the glottis is something secondary. Consonants can therefore be breathed as well as voiced, the mouth configuration alone being enough to produce a distinct sound without the help of voice. Consonants can all be formed with whisper.
Page 95 - Thus the peculiar Japanese (r) seems to be formed by first bringing the tip of the tongue against the gums without any emission of breath, and then passing on to an untrilled (r), allowing voiced breath to pass at the moment of removing the tongue. As Mr. Ellis remarks
Page 141 - Le marquis n'était pourtant pas un homme de génie. Il était savant, mais savant sans spécialité, à moins qu'on ne veuille appeler ainsi une grande habilité pour certains ouvrages sans utilité aucune, dont nous aurons assez souvent lieu de parler plus tard, et qui avaient absorbé jusqu'à la passion, jusqu'à la monomanie, les dix dernières années de son existence.
Page 83 - All consonants consist of three elements, (i) the consonant itself, (2) the on-glide, and (3) the off-glide. Each of these elements may be either voiceless or voiced, and may be modified in various other ways. Consonant synthesis is most clearly seen in the stops, whose synthesis is at the same time the most important.
Page 87 - Stress-glides (Aspirated Stops). All stops, especially when voiceless, postulate a certain compression of the breath behind the stop, so as to produce an audible explosion when the stop is removed. On the force of this compression, which is caused by upward pressure of the diaphragm, the force of the glide and consequently the audibility of the stop mainly depend. The E. (k)
Page 73 - which is the ordinary way of beginning a vowel. (2) The breath is kept back till the glottis is closed for voice, which begins at once without any introductory breath. This is the ' clear ' beginning ([A]a), well known to singers, who are always taught to avoid the ' breathy