The Vascular Cambium: Development and Structure
Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 6, 2012 - Technology & Engineering - 725 pages
The cambium has been variously defined as follows: "The actively dividing layer of cells that lies between, and gives rise to, secondary xylem and phloem (vascular cambium)" (IAWA 1964); "A meristem with products of periclinal divisions commonly contributed in two directions and arranged in radial files. Term pre ferably applied only to the two lateral meristems, the vascular cambium and cork cambium, or phellogen" (Esau 1977); and, "Lateral meristem in vascular plants which produces secondary xylem, secondary phloem, and parenchyma, usually in radial rows; it consists of one layer of initials and their undifferentiated deriva tives" (Little and Jones 1980). Clearly, the cambium is a diverse and extensive meristem, and no one defini tion will encompass all manifestations of what anatomists consider cambium. Its diversity and extent are further exemplified by a single plant, such as a temperate zone tree, in which procambium is initiated in the embryo and perpetuated throughout every lateral, primary meristem before giving rise to cambium in the secondary body. The cambium thereafter performs its meristematic task of producing daughter cells that differentiate to specialized tissue systems. The cam bium, however, does not remain static. Its derivatives vary either in form, or TImc tion, or rate of production at different positions on the tree, with age of the tree, and with season of the year. Moreover, the cambium responds both to internal sig nals and to external stimuli such as environment or wounding.
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Acer Acer pseudoplatanus anticlinal divisions axial canals Bailey Bannan Barghoorn bark bast callus cambial activity cambial cells Catesson cell division cell length cell wall conifers Cumbie daughter cells derivatives diameter dicotyledons differentiation dividing earlywood elongation Esau Evert fibers formation formed frequency of anticlinal fusiform cambial fusiform initials Ghouse girdle grain growth rings gymnosperms Hartig Hejnowicz increase intrusive growth Iqbal Krawczyszyn Larix later latewood layer meristem multiseriate Neeff number of cells observed occurred orientation parenchyma parenchyma cells pattern periclinal divisions phloem Picea abies Pinus strobus Pinus sylvestris pith plasmodesmata Populus primary produced pseudotransverse division Quercus Raatz radial file radial walls ray cell initials ray height resin canals Sanio season secondary shown in Fig sliding growth species stem structure tangential sections tangential walls Thuja occidentalis tissue trabeculae tracheid length tracheids trees uniseriate rays vascular cambium vessel vessel elements wood wound xylem and phloem xylem mother cells