Physiologic and Chemical Basis for Metal Toxicity
Our purpose is to provide understanding for appropriate use of metals in a technical society. Knowledge of metal toxicity is needed for the preven tion, prediction, diagnosis, and therapy of adverse reactions from excess metals in mammals. Metal Toxicity in Mammals is presented in two volumes. Volume 1, Physiologic and Chemical Basis for Metal Toxic ity, provides the basis for understanding the toxic actions of metals recorded in Volume 2, Chemical Toxicity of Metals and Metalloids. The details and bases for many concepts summarized in Volume I are given, with appropriate references, in Volume 2. Thus, references for specific items in Volume 2 are not generally given in Volume 1. The authors reviewed the known toxicity of several heavy metals in anticipation of their use as multinutrient markers for NASA. As more and more metals were considered, the need for a complete review became obvious. This treatise supplants onerous searches of metal-toxicity litera ture up to 1975 and reviews the toxicity of all the metals of the periodic table on the basis of available relevant data. Books on pharmacological, nutritional, medical, veterinary, or industrial toxicity contain information about selected metals. More complete data about metals of public concern, such as mercury, lead, and cadmium, may be found in numerous books and reviews. The reader should refer to general texts and basic reference works, when specific references are not given, for general information.
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MODES OF INTAKE AND ABSORPTION
Dermal Absorption and Administration
Other Parenteral Routes
Physicochemical Properties of Biologic Significance
Hard and Soft Acids and Bases Theory
Biologic MembraneMetal Interactions
SUMMARY AND OVERVIEW OF METAL TOXICITY
Periodicity and Toxicity
absorbed absorption activity acute administration agents alveolar anionic arsenic asbestos atoms beryllium binding biologic blood cadmium cancer carcinogenic cationic causes cells cellular chelate chromium chronic cobalt colloidal complexes concentration coordination copper decreases detoxication diameter dietary digestive tract dose electrons electropositivity enzymes epithelial erythrocytes essential metals essential nutrients excretion exposure fluid gastrointestinal gastrointestinal tract homeostasis homeostatic hydroxides implantation increased indium induced inhalation inherent toxicity inhibition injection insoluble intestinal intoxication involved iron lanthanides lead levels ligands liver Luckey lung macromolecules macrophages magnesium mammals material mechanisms membrane mercury metabolism metal compounds metal ions metal salts metal toxicity metals of Group metals of subgroup microvilli molecule mucosa nickel nontoxic oral organic oxides parenteral particles period phagocytosis phosphate physiologic protein rats reactions respiratory tract reticuloendothelial system sample selenium skin soluble specific stable surface oncogenesis symptoms tellurium teratogenesis teratogenic thallium tion tissues toxic metals toxicity tumors vanadium villus zinc