Is Japanese Related to Korean, Tungusic, Mongolic and Turkic?
Where does Japanese come from? The linguistic origin of the Japanese language is among the most disputed questions of language history. One current hypothesis is that Japanese is an Altaic language, sharing a common ancestor with Korean, Tungusic, Mongolic and Turkic. But, the opinions are strongly polarized. Especially the inclusion of Japanese into this classification model is very much under debate. Given the lack of consensus in the field, this book presents a state of the art for the etymological evidence relating Japanese to Korean, Tungusic, Mongolic and Turkic. The different Altaic etymologies proposed in the scholarly literature are gathered in an etymological index of Japanese appended to this book. An item-by-item sifting of the evidence helps to hold down borrowings, universal similarities and coincidental look-alikes to a small percentage. When the remaining core-evidence is screened in terms of phonological regularity, the answer to the intriguing question is beginning to take shape.
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The history of the question
The individual phonolo gical inventories
Internal evidence contradicts the etymology
Similarities due to general properties of language
Lookalike or cognate?
The core evidence
Etymological Index of Japanese
adjective Altaic Altaic languages Aomori APPJ attested Bash borrowed cognate comparison compound consonant correspondences derived deverbal noun dial dialects Dong ESTJa etymology etymon evidence formant Goka-mura Hakata Hamada Hatto Hiroshima Ib F Ib H Izumo JIES JLTT JOAL Kalm Karakh Khal Kirg Kochi Korean word languages Leksika linguistic marker Martin Matsue Miller Mongolic words morpheme Narada nasal NS T+ obstruent Olć Old Japanese one’s Ordos Oroc Orok Osaka p.JK p.Tg p.Wo p"Mo phonological pl/ſo plmo probably proposed pſg pſk reconstruction reflex root Scerbak semantically overpermissive Sibe SSTM Starostin stem suffix SYugh Tungusic words Turkic words Tuva verb VEWT Vovin vowel Whit