Galen On the Natural Faculties
If the work of Hippocrates be taken as representing the foundation upon which the edifice of historical Greek medicine was reared, then the work of GALEN, who lived some six hundred years later, may be looked upon as the summit of the same edifice. He was born in Pergamum A.D. 129, and both there and in other academic centres of the Aegean pursued his medical studies before being appointed physicial to the Pergamene gladiators in 157. Becoming dissatisfied with this type of practice he emigrated to Rome, where he soon won acknowledgement as the foremost medical authority of his time and where, with one brief interruption, he remained until his death in 199.
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Page 340 - THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY VOLUMES ALREADY PUBLISHED LATIN AUTHORS APULEIUS. THE GOLDEN ASS (METAMORPHOSES). Trans, by W. Adlington (1566). Revised by S. Gaselee. (<ith Impression.) AULUS GELLIUS. Trans, by JC Rolfe. 3 Vols. AUSONIUS. Trans, by HG Evelyn White. 2 Vols.
Page 59 - When this has been made quite clear, then, before the animal urinates, one has to tie a ligature round his penis and then to squeeze the bladder all over; still nothing goes back through the ureters to the kidneys. Here, then, it becomes obvious that not only in a dead animal, but in one which is still living, the ureters are prevented from receiving back the urine from the bladder. These observations having been made, one now loosens the ligature from the animal's penis and allows him to urinate,...
Page 341 - Vol. CICERO: LETTERS TO ATTICUS. Trans, by EO Winstedt. Vols I and II. CONFESSIONS OF ST. AUGUSTINE. Trans, by W. Watts (1631). 2 Vols. HORACE: ODES AND EPODES. Trans, by CE Bennett. 1 Vol. OVID: HEROIDES AND AMORES. Trans, by Grant Showerman. I Vol. OVID: METAMORPHOSES. Trans, by FJ Millet 2 Vols. PETRONIUS. Trans, by M. Heseltine ; SENECA : APOCOLOCYNTOSIS.
Page 342 - Vol. SOPHOCLES. Trans, by F. Storr. 2 Vols. ST. JOHN DAMASCENE : BARLAAM AND IOASAPH. Trans, by the Rev. GR Woodward and Harold Mattingly. STRABO : GEOGRAPHY. Trans, by Horace L. Jones.
Page 19 - Genesis, however, is not a simple activity of Nature, but is compounded of alteration and of shaping. That is to say, in order that bone, nerve, veins, and all other [tissues] may come into existence, the underlying substance from which the animal springs must be altered; and in order that the substance so altered may acquire its appropriate shape and position, its cavities, outgrowths, attachments, and so forth, it has to undergo a shaping or formative process.
Page 23 - ... example, the coats of the stomach, oesophagus, intestines, and arteries; each of these two coats has an alterative faculty peculiar to it, which has engendered it from the menstrual blood of the mother. Thus the special alterative faculties in each animal are of the same number as the elementary parts; and further, the activities must necessarily correspond each to one of the special parts, just as each part has its special use — for example, those ducts which extend from the kidneys into the...
Page 19 - ... [tissues] may come into existence, the underlying substance from which the animal springs must be altered; and in order that the substance so altered may acquire its appropriate shape and position, its cavities, outgrowths, attachments, and so forth, it has to undergo a shaping or formative process. One would be justified in calling this substance which undergoes alteration the material of the animal, just as wood is the material of a ship, and wax of an image. Growth is an increase and expansion...
Page 111 - ... and sometimes even more, of residual matter. For this surplus must necessarily be greater in quantity in each of the larger viscera ; thus, for example, that of the lung, if it corresponds in amount to the size of the viscus, will obviously be many times more than that in the kidneys, and thus the whole of the thorax will become filled, and the animal will be at once suffocated. But if it be said that the residual matter is equal in amount in each of the other parts, where are the bladders, one...
Page 17 - If, therefore, we are to investigate methodically the number and kinds of faculties, we must begin with the effects ; for each of these effects comes from a certain activity, and each of these again is preceded by a cause.
Page 47 - ... injustice, of the beautiful or ugly ; all such things, they say, arise in us from sensation and through sensation, and animals are steered by certain images and memories. Some of these people have even expressly declared that the soul possesses no reasoning faculty, but that we are led like cattle by the impression of our senses, and are unable to refuse or dissent from anything. In their view, obviously, courage, wisdom, temperance, and self-control are all mere nonsense, we do not love either...