Psychological Monographs, Volume 9

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American Psychological Association, 1908 - Psychology
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Page 23 - When reading is done efficiently, the eye-movements are regular and the return sweep from the end of one line to the beginning of the next is made quickly and accurately.
Page 3 - In other cases where he did hear the theoretical upper partials, they were weaker than the theory required. He concluded that the definition of a simple tone as given by Ohm was too limited, and that not only pendular vibrations, but other vibrational forms, provided they were not too widely separated from the pendular, were capable of exciting in the ear the sensation of a single simple tone, which, however, had a variable quality. He consequently asserted that when a musical tone was compounded...
Page 98 - The general consideration of the cases of retention or of loss of practice effect seems to make it likely that spread of practice occurs only where identical elements are concerned in the influencing and influenced function.
Page 14 - Now, the point made above is this: unless this new vibration-frequency can communicate its period to the surrounding fluid so that it can be taken up by the sympathetic fibers at X, no such tone will be sensed. And such a process is improbable. This leads us naturally to Helmholtz's positive contribution, a new explanation of the origin of combination tones, the principle of which we have already anticipated. He had shown why on his own theory of cochlear action combination tones cannot result from...
Page 7 - The experiment does not succeed so well if the damper is removed only from the note on which the vowels are sung. The vowel character of the echo arises from the re-echoing of those upper partial tones which characterise the vowels. These, however, will echo better and more clearly when their corresponding higher strings are free and can vibrate sympathetically. In this case, then, in the last resort, the musical effect of the resonance is compounded of the tones of several strings, and several separate...
Page 19 - Nevertheless I have convinced myself by particular experiments, that even in this instrument the greater part of the force of the combinational tone is generated in the ear itself. I arranged the portvents in the instrument so that one of the two generators was supplied with air by the bellows moved below by the foot, and the second generator was blown by the reserve bellows, which was first pumped full and then cut off by drawing out the so-called expression-stop, and I then found that the combinational...
Page 31 - The lower box of my double siren vibrates strongly in sympathy with the fork a1 when it is held before the lower opening, and the holes are all covered, but not when the holes are open. On putting the disk of the siren in rotation so that the holes are alternately opened and covered, the resonance of the tuning-fork varies periodically. If n is the vibrational number of the fork, and m the number of times that a single hole in the box is opened, the strength of the resonance will be a periodic function...
Page 98 - ... trained with certain data, as we pass to data more and more unlike the first, makes it fair to infer that there is always a point where the loss is complete, a point beyond which the influence of the training has not extended. The rapidity of this loss, that is, its amount in the case of data very similar to the data on which the function was trained, makes it fair to infer that this point is nearer than has been supposed.
Page 17 - Sensations of Tone, p. 158 b, 413 b. "Ibid., p. 158 b. this is not the case for the subsequent outward motion of the handle of the hammer, during which the teeth of the two ossicles need not catch each other. In this case the ossicles may click. Now I seem to hear this clicking in my own ear whenever a very strong and deep tone is brought to bear upon it, even when, for example, it is produced by a tuning-fork held between the fingers, in which there is certainly nothing that can make any click at...
Page 21 - The theory does not explain the origin of summation tones. (2) Under certain conditions combination (both difference and summation) tones exist objectively, ' independently of the ear which would have had to gather the beats into a new tone.

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