Language and Linguistics

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Cambridge University Press, May 29, 1981 - Language Arts & Disciplines - 356 pages
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This 1981 book is a general introduction to linguistics and the study of language, intended particularly for beginning students and readers with no previous knowledge or training in the subject. There is first a general account of the nature of language and of the aims, methods and basic principles of linguistic theory. John Lyons then introduces in turn each of the main sub-fields of linguistics: the sounds of language, grammar, semantics, language change, psycholinguistics: the sounds of language, grammar, semantics, language change, psycholinguistics, language and culture. Throughout the book he emphasizes particularly those aspects of the discipline that seem fundamental and most likely to remain important. He stresses throughout the cultural at least as much as the biological context of human language, and shows how the linguist's concerns connect productively with those of the traditional humanities and the social sciences. Each chapter has a wide-ranging set of discussion questions and revision exercises, and extensive suggestions for further reading. The exposition is marked throughout by the author's characteristic clarity, balance and authority.
 

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Contents

Language
1
12 Some definitions of language
3
13 Languagebehaviour and languagesystems
8
14 Language and speech
11
15 The semiotic point of view
17
16 The fiction of homogeneity
24
17 There are no primitive languages
27
Further reading
31
Languagechange
179
62 Languagefamilies
184
63 The comparative method
192
64 Analogy and borrowing
201
65 The causes of languagechange
207
Further reading
213
Some modern schools and movements
216
72 Structuralism
218

Linguistics
34
22 Is linguistics a science?
37
23 Terminology and notation
46
24 Linguistics is descriptive not prescriptive
47
25 Priority of synchronic description
54
26 Structure and system
59
Further reading
64
The sounds of language
66
32 Phonetic and orthographic representation
69
33 Articulatory phonetics
72
34 Phonemes and allophones
84
35 Distinctive features and suprasegmental phonology
89
36 Phonological structure
95
Further reading
98
Grammar
100
42 Grammatically productivity and arbitrariness
104
43 Parts of speech formclasses and grammatical categories
109
44 Some additional grammatical concepts
113
45 Constituentstructure
117
46 Generative grammar
124
Further reading
129
Questions and exercises
131
Semantics
136
homonymy polysemy synonymy
144
sense and denotation
151
54 Semantics and grammar
156
55 Sentencemeaning and utterancemeaning
163
56 Formal semantics
170
Further reading
175
Questions and exercises
176
73 Functionalism
224
74 Generativism
228
Further reading
235
Questions and exercises
236
Language and mind
238
82 Mentalism rationalism and innateness
242
83 Language and the brain
248
84 Languageacquisition
251
85 Other areas of psycholinguistics
257
86 Cognitive science and artificial intelligence
262
Further reading
264
Language and society
266
92 Accent dialect and idiolect
268
93 Standards and vernaculars
276
94 Bilingualism codeswitching and diglossia
281
95 Practical applications
286
96 Stylistic variation and stylistics
290
Further reading
297
Questions and exercises
298
Language and culture
301
102 The SapirWhorf hypothesis
303
103 Colourterms
312
104 Pronouns of address
317
105 Cultural overlap cultural diffusion and translatability
322
Further reading
329
Questions and exercises
330
Bibliography
333
Index
351
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About the author (1981)

John Lyons operates John Lyons Symposiums in Colorado; among his previous books is Lyons on Horses.

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