The Environment as Hazard
The Environment as Hazard offers an understanding of how people around the world deal with dramatic fluctuations in the local natural systems of air, water, and terrain. Reviewing recent theoretical and methodological changes in the investigation of natural hazards, the authors describe how research findings are being incorporated into public policy, particularly research on slow cumulative events, technological hazards, the role played by social systems, and the relation of hazards theory to risk analysis. Through vivid examples from a broad sample of countries, this volume illuminates the range of experiences associated with natural hazards. The authors show how modes of coping change with levels of economic development by contrasting hazards in developing countries with those in high income countries - comparing the results of hurricanes in Bangladesh and the United States, and earthquakes in Nicaragua and California.
In new introductory and concluding chapters that supplement the original text, the authors present new global data sets, as well as a trenchant discussion of implications of hazards research for the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction and for attempts by the world community to come to grips with the threats of climate change.
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Is the Environment Becoming More Hazardous?
TROPICAL STORM AGNES 1972
TRENDS IN LOSSES
SELECTED HAZARDS IN THE UNITED STATES
POLICY AND ORGANIZATION
BANGLADESH AND TROPICAL STORM AGNES REVISITED
PROCESSES OF CHOICE
THE APPRAISAL OF HAZARD
PERCEPTION AND CREATION OF ADJUSTMENTS
ADOPTION OF ADJUSTMENTS
MAINTENANCE AND CHANGE
NATIONAL APPRAISALS OF HAZARD
FEATURES IN COMMON
A CRUCIAL TIME
Hazard Response and Choice
ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS FOR HUMAN RESPONSE
RESPONSE TO HAZARDS
CHOICES AND DECISIONS
The Range of Experience
HAZARD AND THE NATIONAL EXPERIENCE
DEVELOPMENT AND THE NATIONAL EXPERIENCE
HOW DO PEOPLE CHOOSE ADJUSTMENTS?
ELEMENTS IN THE CHOICE PROCESS
COMPARATIVE STUDY SITES
CHARACTERISTIC APPRAISALS AND CHOICES
FOUR BEHAVIOR PATTERNS
IMPLICATIONS OF INDIVIDUAL CHOICE
NATIONAL EXPERIENCE IN COPING
TYPES OF NATIONAL POLICIES
DIRECTIONS FOR NATIONAL POLICY
WHAT IS WORTH SHARING?
WHAT IS WORTH DOING JOINTLY?
Natural Extremes and Social Resilience
MODES OF COPING
THE MIX OF ADJUSTMENTS
THE CAUSES OF NATURAL DISASTER
IS A LESS HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENT ATTAINABLE?
BY WAY OF SUMMARY
THE INTERNATIONAL DECADE FOR NATURAL DISASTER REDUCTION
THE CHALLENGE OF GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE
National and Comparative Studies
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absorptive capacity action adjustments adopted agencies agricultural air pollution appraisal areas Bangladesh Burton capita catastrophe choice coastal comprehensive coping cost crops damage deaths developing countries disaster relief drought earthquake economic effects effort emergency environment environmental estimated evacuation experience extreme events farmers federal Figure flood floodplain forecasting frequency global global warming groups hazard event hazard research human hurricane impact income increase individual industrial Kates Labour Brigade land Liu Ling loss magnitude maize major Managua measures ment million natural disasters natural events natural hazards Nicaragua occur organization pattern people's commune percent plant population possible potential prevent protection range reduce regions response risk River scale scientific social society Sri Lanka storm studies Tanzania threshold tion tornado Tristan da Cunha tropical cyclone Tropical Storm Agnes tsunami United Kingdom urban vulnerable warning systems zone