War, Peace, and Human Nature: The Convergence of Evolutionary and Cultural Views
Douglas P. Fry
Oxford University Press, Mar 15, 2013 - Social Science - 582 pages
Have humans always waged war? Is warring an ancient evolutionary adaptation or a relatively recent behavior--and what does that tell us about human nature? In War, Peace, and Human Nature, editor Douglas P. Fry brings together leading experts in such fields as evolutionary biology, archaeology, anthropology, and primatology to answer fundamental questions about peace, conflict, and human nature in an evolutionary context. The chapters in this book demonstrate that humans clearly have the capacity to make war, but since war is absent in some cultures, it cannot be viewed as a human universal. And counter to frequent presumption the actual archaeological record reveals the recent emergence of war. It does not typify the ancestral type of human society, the nomadic forager band, and contrary to widespread assumptions, there is little support for the idea that war is ancient or an evolved adaptation. Views of human nature as inherently warlike stem not from the facts but from cultural views embedded in Western thinking. Drawing upon evolutionary and ecological models; the archaeological record of the origins of war; nomadic forager societies past and present; the value and limitations of primate analogies; and the evolution of agonism, including restraint; the chapters in this interdisciplinary volume refute many popular generalizations and effectively bring scientific objectivity to the culturally and historically controversial subjects of war, peace, and human nature.
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Ecological and Evolutionary Models
Lessons from Prehistory War and Peace in the Past
Nomadic Foragers Insights about Human Nature
The Primatological Context of Human Nature
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adult aggressive behavior American Animal Behaviour Anthropology archaeological areas attack Aureli baboons band societies Batek Biology Boehm Boesch Boiken bonobos Butovskaya Cambridge capuchin monkeys Chalcolithic chapter chimpanzees competition complex conflict resolution context cooperation cultural Datoga deaths early ecology egalitarian environment ethnographic ethology evidence evolutionary example females Ferguson fighting Forest Troop Gardner Gombe Goodall groups Hadza homicide human evolution human nature hunter-gatherers hunting individuals interactions intergroup aggression Journal of Primatology Keeley Kelly killing lethal aggression living Malapandaram males Mardu mates Mesolithic Mitani monkeys Moriori neighboring Neolithic niche construction nonhuman one’s Oxford University Press Paleolithic Paliyan patterns peace peacemaking percent perspective physical aggression Pinker Pleistocene political population prehistoric primates Primatology psychology raiding rates reconciliation regueifa relations relationships rhesus ritual SBGH social song duels species Sussman territorial tion Upper Paleolithic violence Waal warfare weapons Wilson Wrangham York