How to Measure Angles from Foot Radiographs: A Primer
Why and Wherefore? Welcome to our little introductory book! It appears in response to be ginning students (i.e., especially general radiology residents) who have sought guidance with the methodology of evaluating positional rela tionships of the feet from radiographs. Since my stepwise "how to" technique has been well received both in the Show-Me state (at the University of Missouri·Columbia) and here in Ohio, it is offered to you as well. To simulate my conventional teaching method, the informal text has an interactive flavor, which I hope makes it useful for you. Please don't be offended by a touch of simplified walking·through of material here and there. After all, this is a "primer," not a dignified postgraduate treatise. Comments from readers would of course be appreciated by the author. The majority of illustrations are the result of the collaboration with my dear colleague Tamar, in which she artistically interpreted repre sentative radiographs for you to my specifications. The guidelines I gave her included line drawing outlines of the most pertinent bones, to which straight lines were added as appropriate. As a result certain bones, for example the fibula and many phalanges, are omitted if they are unlikely to enhance the impact of the illustrations. Often, too, the cuneiforms and cuboid remain undifferentiated as one bony element, or only a few of them are drawn, so that attention remains with the key bones involved.
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Varus and Valgus
The Hindfoot Frontal View
The Forefoot Frontal View
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abnormal accessory navicular ankle valgus anteater nose AP film Atlas of Pediatric Bone Jt Surg bony bow legs broken midfoot Bunionette calcaneus position cartilaginous cavus central axis clinical clubfoot considered Crawford AH Cubitus Varus cuboid diaphysis enchondral equinus evaluation eversion example femur femur neck fifth metatarsal foot i.e. foot in normal forefoot varus frontal film frontal talo-calcaneal angle hallux valgus hindfoot varus inversion lateral foot lateral talo-calcaneal angle line drawing Magalon Maximum Dorsiflexion Lateral Measurements on radiographs medial metatarsus adductus metatarsus primus varus midline axis midline midline FIGURE navicular shaded normal anatomic position normal angle normal infants oblique talus Oestreich AE ossified Pediatric Orthopedic Radiology pes planus plantarflexion proximal phalanx proximal tibia scoliosis simulated weightbearing Staheli LT talar Talipes equinovarus talus and calcaneus talus axis tarsal coalition tibia true vertical talus valga valgus relationship varus and valgus Varus hip varus or valgus vertical talus weightbearing film weightbearing lateral film X-Bein