Against Their Will: The History and Geography of Forced Migrations in the USSR
During his reign over the former Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin oversaw the forced resettlement of six million people -- a maniacal passion that he used for social engineering. The Soviets were not the first to thrust resettlement on its population -- a major characteristic of totalitarian systems -- but in terms of sheer numbers, technologies used to deport people and the lawlessness which accompanied it, Stalin's process was the most notable. Six million people of different social, ethnic, and professions were resettled before Stalin's death. Even today, the aftermath of such deportations largely predetermines events which take place in the northern Caucasus, Crimea, the Baltic republics, Moldavia, and western Ukraine. Polian's volume is the first attempt to comprehensively examine the history of forced and semivoluntary population movements within or organized by the Soviet Union. Contents range from the early 1920s to the rehabilitation of repressed nationalities in the 1990s dealing with internal (kulaks, ethnic and political deportations) and international forced migrations (German internees and occupied territories). An abundance of facts, figures, tables, maps, and an exhaustively-detailed annex will serve as important sources for further researches.
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This short book is a succinct and comprehensive account of the appalling forced deportations of peoples and communities from soviet territories from the beginning of the USSR until some years after the end of WWII.
I found one striking omission, however. Virtually no information is included about just what happened to these innocent people at the end of their dreadful journeys; those who survived, that is. Many were deported to areas where the climate was harsh, no proper shelter was provided and no employment was available. Some, probably, were somewhat more fortunate. But we really need to know how these communities coped and survived, and indeed how they were received in those cases in which the communities were returned, or allowed to return, to their homelands.
One of the most notorious cases was that of the Crimean Tatars: the entire population was deported by Stalin in 1944 on the pretext that they has been Nazi sympathisers.
Some of the worst crimes of Stalin and his brutal colleagues are represented in these stories. Making due allowance for the omissions referred to, this book still deserves a wide reading so that a better understanding of these events may result.
Dr Alan N Cowan, Canberra Australia
FORCED MIGRATIONS DURING AND AFTER THE SECOND WORLD WAR 19391953
Total preventive deportation of Soviet Germans Finns and Greeks in 19411942
Retributive total deportations of the peoples of the North Caucasus and Crimea in 19431944
Preventive forced deportations from Transcaucasia and other deportations during the last stage of the war in 19441945
Internment of Germans in Southeast Europe
Internment of Germans on the territory of the Third Reich
Some outcomes of the operation for the internment of Germans
EMPLOYMENT OF LABOR OF GERMAN CIVILIANS FROM EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN THE USSR AND THEIR REPATRIATION
Beginning of repatriation of internees and new labor reparations
Further repatriation process and its completion
GEODEMOGRAPHIC SCALE AND REPERCUSSIONS OF FORCED MIGRATIONS IN THE USSR
Compensatory forced migrations in 19411946
Ethnic and other deportations after the Second World War 19491953
PATTERNS OF DEPORTED PEOPLES SETTLEMENT AND REHABILITATION PROCESS
Patterns of deported peoples settlement at the destinations
Rehabilitation and internal repatriation of Kalmyks and peoples of the North Caucasus
Rehabilitation of Germans
Rehabilitation of the Crimean Tatars
Rehabilitation of Meskhetian Turks
Repressed peoples and ethnic conflicts on the territory of the former USSR in the 1990s
INTERNATIONAL FORCED MIGRATIONS
INTERNMENT AND DEPORTATION OF GERMAN CIVILIANS FROM EUROPEAN COUNTRIES TO THE USSR
Repressive forced migrations in the USSR
Chronology of official legislative acts issued by the state and party bodies of the USSR and its successor states concerning forced migrations or their c...
Report No 800 On planned resettlement from the Kursk Oblast 20 March 1938
USSR Supreme Soviet declaration On the recognition as unlawful and criminal of the repressive acts against peoples who were subjected to forced res...
GLOSSARY OF RUSSIAN TERMS