Springer Handbook of Materials Measurement Methods

Front Cover
Horst Czichos, Tetsuya Saito, Leslie R. Smith
Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 1, 2006 - Technology & Engineering - 1208 pages
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In its most general context, the term â¬~materials measurements' denotes operations to distinguish qualitatively and to determine quantitatively characteristics of materials. As materials constitute the physical matter of all products â¬" machines, devices, plants, commodities, means of information, communication, transport, habitation and energy supply â¬" materials measurements have a wide scope and impact for science and technology, economy and society. This Handbook compiles advanced methods for materials measurement and characterization from the macroscopic to the nano-scale. Materials science and its industrial applications require the highest level of accuracy and reliability in the measurement of the properties of materials and the assessment of their safety and reliability. Indeed, major technological nations fund large laboratories for testing and measurements that set standards, assess the safety and reliability of materials, and oversee the use of dangerous materials. But behind and beyond the data themselves are the underlying methods whose sophistication and proper use are absolutely necessary to achieve the accuracy, reliability, and safety required by modern technologies. In addition, the acceleration of the design and creation of new materials via techniques such as molecular modeling and simulation, especially on the nanoscale, makes the measurement of new materials properties and their characterization ever more critical. So materials professionals need not only handbooks of materials data but clear guidelines and standards for how to measure the full spectrum of materials characteristics of new materials and systems. Since materials science forms a bridge between the more traditonal fields of physics, engineering, and chemistry, unifying the varying perspectives and covering the full gamut of properties also serves a useful purpose. This Handbook is the first dedicated to these practical and important considerations.
 

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Contents

1 Measurement Principles and Structures
3
The Birth of the Meter Convention
6
The First 75 Years
7
A Metrological Revolution
8
16 Regional Metrology Organizations
9
17 Traceability of Measurements
10
19 Metrology in the 21st Century
12
110 The SI System and New Science
14
126 Corrosion with Mechanical Loading
649
127 HydrogenInduced Stress Corrosion Cracking
659
128 HighTemperature Corrosion
662
129 Inhibitor Testing and Monitoring of Efficiency
676
References
681
13 Friction and Wear
685
132 Selection of Friction and Wear Tests
689
133 Tribological Test Methods
693

References
16
2 Measurement Strategy and Quality
17
21 Sampling
18
22 The Traceability of Measurements
23
23 Statistical Evaluation of Results
27
24 Validation
47
25 Interlaboratory Comparisons and Proficiency Testing
57
26 Certified Reference Materials
67
27 Reference Procedures
75
28 Accreditation and Peer Assessment
84
29 Human Aspects in a Laboratory
88
210 Further Reading
92
Overview
95
31 Basic Features of Materials
96
32 Classification of Materials Characterization Methods
101
References
102
Measurement Methods for Composition and Structure
103
4 Chemical Composition
105
42 Microanalytical Chemical Characterization
138
References
148
5 Nanoscopic Architecture and Microstructure
153
51 Fundamentals
159
52 Crystalline and Amorphous Structure Analysis
180
53 Lattice Defects and Impurities Analysis
187
54 Molecular Architecture Analysis
206
55 Texture Phase Distributions and Finite Structures Analysis
217
References
225
6 Surface and Interface Characterization
229
61 Surface Chemical Analysis
230
62 Surface Topography Analysis
255
References
272
Measurement Methods for Materials Properties
281
7 Mechanical Properties
283
71 Elasticity
284
72 Plasticity
299
73 Hardness
311
74 Strength
333
75 Fracture Mechanics
353
76 Permeation and Diffusion
371
References
387
8 Thermal Properties
399
81 Thermal Conductivity and Specific Heat Capacity
400
82 Enthalpy of Phase Transition Adsorption and Mixing
408
83 Thermal Expansion and Thermomechanical Analysis
415
84 Thermogravimetry
417
References
428
9 Electrical Properties
431
91 Electrical Materials
432
92 Electrical Conductivity of Metallic Materials
439
93 Electrolytical Conductivity
444
94 Semiconductors
453
95 Measurement of Dielectric Materials Properties
472
References
481
10 Magnetic Properties
485
101 Magnetic Materials
486
Standard Measurement Techniques for Properties Related to the BH Loop
490
103 Magnetic Characterization in a Pulsed Field Magnetometer PFM
510
104 Properties of Magnetic Thin Films
522
References
527
11 Optical Properties
531
111 Fundamentals of Optical Spectroscopy
532
112 Microspectroscopy
549
113 Magnetooptical Measurement
553
114 Nonlinear Optics and Ultrashort Pulsed Laser Application
558
115 Fiber Optics
570
116 Evaluation Technologies for Optical Disk Memory Materials
585
117 Optical Sensing
593
References
600
Measurement Methods for Materials Performance
609
12 Corrosion
611
121 Background
612
122 Conventional Electrochemical Test Methods
615
123 Novel Electrochemical Test Methods
639
124 Exposure and OnSite Testing
643
134 Friction Measurement
696
135 Quantitative Assessment of Wear
701
136 Characterization of Surfaces and Debris
706
References
709
14 Biogenic Impact on Materials
711
141 Modes of Materials Organisms Interactions
712
142 Biological Testing of Wood
716
143 Testing of Organic Materials
731
144 Biological Testing of Inorganic Materials
753
145 Coatings and Coating Materials
768
146 Reference Organisms
775
References
780
15 MaterialEnvironment Interactions
789
152 Emissions from Materials
804
153 Fire Physics and Chemistry
813
References
825
16 Performance Control and Condition Monitoring
831
161 Nondestructive Evaluation
832
162 Industrial Radiology
844
163 Computerized Tomography Application to Organic Materials
858
164 Computerized Tomography Application to Inorganic Materials
864
165 Computed Tomography Application to Composites and Microstructures
870
166 Structural Health Monitoring Embedded Sensors
875
167 Characterization of Reliability
891
16A Appendix
907
References
908
Part E Modeling and Comutation Metfods
913
17 Molecular Dynamics
915
172 Diffusionless Transformation
928
173 Rapid Solidification
935
174 Diffusion
946
175 Summary
950
18 Continuum Constitutive Modeling
953
182 Material Anisotropy
958
183 Metallothermomechanical Coupling
963
184 Crystal Plasticity
966
References
970
19 Finite Element and Finite Difference Methods
973
191 Discretized Numerical Schemes for FEM and FDM
975
192 Basic Derivations in FEM and FDM
977
193 The Equivalence of FEM and FDM Methods
981
Equilibrium Equations and Partial Differential Equations
982
Characteristic of Partial Differential Equations
987
196 Time Integration for Unsteady Problems
989
197 Multidimensional Case
991
198 Treatment of the Nonlinear Case
995
1910 Free Codes
999
20 The CALPHAD Method
1001
201 Outline of the CALPHAD Method
1002
202 Incorporation of the First Principle Calculations into the CALPHAD Approach
1006
203 Prediction of Thermodynamic Properties of Compound Phases with First Principle Calculations
1019
References
1030
21 Phase Field
1031
211 Basic Concept of the PhaseField Method
1032
212 Total Free Energy of Microstructure
1033
213 Solidification
1042
214 DiffusionControlled Phase Transformation
1045
215 Structural Phase Transformation
1048
216 Microstructure Evolution
1050
References
1054
22 Monte Carlo Simulation
1057
222 Improved Algorithms
1061
223 Quantum Monte Carlo Method
1066
224 Bicritical Phenomena in O5 Model
1073
225 Superconductivity Vortex State
1077
226 Effects of Randomness in Vortex States
1083
227 Quantum Critical Phenomena
1086
References
1089
Appendix International Standards
1097
Acknowledgements
1151
About the Authors
1153
Detailed Contents
1173
Subject Index
1189
Copyright

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About the author (2006)

Dr. Horst Czichos is Professor of Mechatronics at the University of Applied Sciences, Berlin, Germany. He graduated with a degree in Precision Engineering and worked as a design engineer in the optical industry. He holds Dipl.-Phys. and Dr.-Ing (Materials Science) degrees from the Free and Technical Universities of Berlin and a Dr. h.c. from KU Leuven. He was President of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) from 1992 to 2002 and President of the European Federation of National Associations of Measurement, Testing and Analytical Laboratories, EUROLAB (1999 - 2003), and is now its Delegate for the International Affiliates.

Dr. Saito is currently Senior Adviser Emeritus at the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) and Chairman of ISO/TC164 (Mechanical Testing of Metals). He received his Dr.-Eng from the University of Tokyo in 1978 and since has held various positions at the National Research Institute for Metals, including Director of Materials Evaluation Division and Deputy Director-General of the Institute.

After retirement from his position as Director of the Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Dr. Leslie Smith is a Research Associate at NIST. He received B.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Case Institute of Technology and the Catholic University of America in physical-organic chemistry and conducted research primarily on the adsorption of polymers and the degradation of polyesters.

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