## Polarization in Spectral LinesThe scientific research based on spectropolarimetric techniques is undergoing a phase of rapid growth. Instruments of unprecedented sensitivity are nowadays available, particularly for solar observations. To fully exploit the rich diagnostic content of such observations, it is necessary to understand the physical mechanisms involved in the generation and transfer of polarized radiation in astrophysical (or laboratory) plasmas. After an introductory part based on classical physics, this book tackles the subject by a rigorous quantum-mechanical approach. The transfer equations for polarized radiation and the statistical equilibrium equations for the atomic density matrix are derived directly from the principles of Quantum Electrodynamics. The two sets of equations are then used to present a number of applications, mainly concerning the diagnostics of solar magnetic fields. This book is primarily addressed to scientists working in the field of spectropolarimetry. It may also serve as a textbook for a course at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level. |

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### Contents

DESCRIPTION OF POLARIZED RADIATION | 1 |

ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND RACAH ALGEBRA | 29 |

ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY | 73 |

QUANTIZATION OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD | 131 |

INTERACTION OF MATERIAL SYSTEMS WITH POLARIZED | 147 |

INTERACTION OF MATERIAL SYSTEMS WITH POLARIZED | 237 |

STATISTICAL EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS AND RADIATIVE | 277 |

RADIATIVE TRANSFER FOR POLARIZED RADIATION | 349 |

LINE FORMATION IN A MAGNETIC FIELD | 375 |

NONEQUILIBRIUM ATOMIC PHYSICS | 509 |

APPENDIX | 791 |

LIST OF TABLES | 867 |

881 | |

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### Common terms and phrases

9-j symbols angle angular momentum assumption atomic polarization atomic system circular polarization collisions components consider continuum corresponding defined in Eq density matrix density-matrix elements depolarizing derived Doppler easily eigenvalues eigenvectors evaluated evolution operator expression formal frequency frequency-integrated given by Eq Hamiltonian Hanle effect help of Eqs hyperfine structure integral intensity introduced Lande factor Landi Degl'Innocenti linear polarization magnetic field magnetic field vector matrix elements model atom multiplet non-LTE non-zero obtained from Eq optical depth oscillator phase matrix physical polarized radiation propagation matrix properties quantities quantum numbers radiation beam radiation field tensor radiative transfer equations reduced reference direction reference system relation rotation Sect solar solution source function spectral line spherical tensor statistical equilibrium equations statistical tensors stellar atmosphere stimulated emission Stokes parameters Stokes vector sublevels symmetry transition two-level atom unit vectors upper level values velocity wavelength width zero