Development and Evolution: Including Psychophysical Evolution, Evolution by Orthoplasy, and the Theory of Genetic Modes

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Macmillan, 1902 - Evolution - 395 pages
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Page 215 - I should premise that I use the term Struggle for Existence in a large and metaphorical sense, including dependence of one being on another, and including (which is more important) not only the life of the individual, but success in leaving progeny.
Page 254 - With the formula : -what -we do is a function of -what we think, we have this other : -what -we shall think is a function of what ive have done." In general conception this is Simmel's position. In the following sentence (of which the passage in the text might almost be considered an English rendering) he Is accounting for the
Page 400 - This summary sketch can give no idea of the variety of topics which Professor Baldwin handles, or of the originality with which his central thesis is worked out. No psychologist can afford to neglect the book.
Page 400 - Professor Baldwin's work is comparatively untechnical in character and written in a terse and vigorous style, so that it will commend itself to unprofessional readers. Having been led by his studies and experiments with his two little daughters to a profound appreciation of the genetic function of imitation, he has sought to work out a theory of mental development in the child incorporating this new insight. A clear understanding of the mental development of the individual child necessitates a doctrine...
Page 112 - The thought of a movement tends to discharge motor energy into the channels as near as may be to those necessary for that movement " (ref. 3). By this organic concentration and excess of movement many combinations and variations are rendered possible, from which the advantageous and adaptive movements may be selected for their utility. These then give renewed pleasure, excite pleasurable associations, and again stimulate the attention, and by these influences the adaptive movements thus struck are...
Page 352 - ... although the results of purely individual response to external forces are not hereditary, yet indirectly they may result in the permanent addition of corresponding powers to the species. The principles involved seem to constitute a substantial gain in the attempt to understand the motive forces by which the great process of organic evolution has been brought about...
Page 103 - ... determinate variations" appearing suddenly, let us say, in fossil deposits, but the fact that variations seem often to be " discontinuous." Suppose, for example, certain animals, varying, in respect to a certain quality, from a to n about a mean x. The mean x would be the case most likely to be preserved in fossil form (seeing that there are vastly more of them). Now suppose a sweeping change in the environment, in such a way that only the variations lying near the extreme n can accommodate to...
Page 353 - The inadequacy of these views is clearly shown when we consider that the external forces which awake response in an organism generally belong to its inorganic (physical or chemical) environment, while the usefulness of the response has relation to its organic environment (enemies, prey, etc.). Thus one set of forces supply the stimuli which evoke a response to another and very different set of forces.
Page 252 - ... which is a testing of the general character of a new experience as calling out the acquired motor habits of the organism ; 2 and second, an extra-organic or environmental selection, which is a testing of the special concrete character of the experience as fitted, through the motor -variations to •which it gives rise, to bring about a new determination in the system in which it goes. These selective tests we may call respectively the test of
Page 105 - This is especially true where intelligent and imitative adaptations are involved, as in the case of instinct. This " may give the reason, eg, that instincts are so often coterminous with the limits of species. Similar structures find the similar uses for their intelligence, and they also find the same imitative actions to be to their advantage. So the interaction of these conscious factors with natural selection brings it about that the structural definition which represents species, and the functional...

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