The Asian Elephant: Ecology and Management

Front Cover
Cambridge University Press, 1992 - Nature - 255 pages
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The Asian elephant has had a unique cultural association with people. Unfortunately, elephants and people have also been in conflict, resulting in the decline in elephants throughout their former range in Southern Asia. This book provides an ecological analysis of elephant human interaction and its implications for the conservation of elephants. The foraging habits of elephants and their impact on vegetation are considered, along with the interactions that occur between elephants and humans. The ecological data provide the basis for recommendations on elephant conservation and management, keeping in view the socio-economic imperatives of the Asian region.This first comprehensive account of Asian elephant ecology will be of particular interest to conservation biologists and mammalogists.
 

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Contents

The historical background
1
11 The period before Christ
2
12 The period after Christ
4
13 Elephants captured during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries
8
Status and distribution of the Asian elephant
10
21 Indian subcontinent
11
215 Bangladesh
18
23 Island Asia
24
76 Quantity of crops damaged and the economic loss
123
77 Methods to deter elephants and their behavioural responses
125
78 Crop raiding in rain forest habitats
126
79 Causes of crop raiding
130
Manslaughter by elephants
135
82 The elephants responsible
136
83 Circumstances of encounter
137
84 Causes of aggression
140

24 Summary of population estimates
29
25 Conservation issues
32
The main study area and study methods
39
31 The study area
40
32 Study methods
54
Movement and habitat utilization
60
42 Movement pattern of different clans
62
43 Home range sizes and factors influencing them
63
44 Interannual differences in movement pattern
65
46 Seasonal use of habitat types
66
47 Movement in relation to foraging and availability of water
67
Feeding and nutrition
69
52 Proportions of browse and grass in the diet
71
53 Proportions of different browse plants in the diet
74
54 Quantity of forage consumed
78
55 Drinking
79
56 Nutrition and foraging
80
Impact on the vegetation and carrying capacity
86
61 Primary production of grasses
87
62 Biomass of mammalian herbivores and grass consumption
89
63 Impact on woody vegetation
91
64 Interspecific competition resource limitation and carrying capacity
97
65 Elephantvegetation interaction and ecosystem dynamics
99
Crop raiding by elephants
108
72 The crops consumed and patterns of feeding
111
73 Frequency and seasonality of raiding
114
74 Group sizes of raiding elephants
116
75 Quantity consumed from crop fields
120
Habitat manipulation by people
143
92 Shifting cultivation
144
93 Extraction of plant products
145
94 Grazing by domestic livestock
150
95 Fire
151
96 Forest plantations
154
97 Food availability in primary versus secondary rain forest
157
99 Creation of water reservoirs
159
Elephant slaughter by people
165
102 Causes of death in elephants
166
103 Number age frequency and mean tusk weight of poached elephants
168
104 The people responsible
169
105 Poaching and the ivory trade in India
170
Population dynamics
174
111 Age and sex structure
175
112 Fertility
177
113 Mortality
182
114 Population modelling
188
predicted and observed trends in the proportion of adult males
197
Conservation and management
202
122 Protection of human interests
211
Estimation of seasonal elephant densities by ground transects
219
Growth relationships and field methods of ageing elephants
224
Nutritive value of food plants
227
Population viability analysis
230
References
234
Index
244
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