## Symbolic and Quantitative Approaches to Reasoning with Uncertainty: 10th European Conference, ECSQARU 2009, Verona, Italy, July 1-3, 2009, ProceedingsClaudio Sossai, Gaetano Chemello These are the proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Symbolic and Quantitative Approaches to Reasoning with Uncertainty, ECSQARU 2009, held in Verona (Italy), July 1–3, 2009. The biennial ECSQARU conferences are a major forum for advances in the theory and practice of reasoning under uncertainty. The ?rst ECSQARU conf- ence was held in Marseille (1991), and since then it has been held in Granada (1993), Fribourg (1995), Bonn (1997), London (1999), Toulouse (2001), Aalborg (2003), Barcelona (2005) and Hammamet (2007). The 76 papers gathered in this volume were selected out of 118 submissions from 34 countries, after a rigorous review process. In addition, the conference included invited lectures by three outstanding researchers in the area: Isabelle Bloch (“Fuzzy and bipolar mathematical morphology, applications in spatial reasoning”), Petr Cintula (“From (deductive) fuzzy logic to (logic-based) fuzzy mathematics”),andDaniele Mundici(“Conditionalsandindependence inma- valued logics”). Twospecialsessionswerepresentedduringtheconference:“Conditioning,- dependence, inference” (organizedby Giulianella Coletti and BarbaraVantaggi) and “Mathematicalfuzzy logic” (organizedby Stefano Aguzzoli,Brunella Gerla, Llu´ ?s Godo, Vincenzo Marra, Franco Montagna) On the whole, the program of the conference provided a broad, rich and up-to-date perspective of the current high-level research in the area which is re?ected in the contents of this volume. |

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### Contents

Fuzzy and Bipolar Mathematical Morphology Applications in Spatial Reasoning | 1 |

From Deductive Fuzzy Logic to LogicBased Fuzzy Mathematics | 14 |

Conditionals and Independence in ManyValued Logics | 16 |

Inference from Multinomial Data Based on a MLEDominance Criterion | 22 |

Local Computation Schemes with Partially Ordered Preferences | 34 |

Inference in Hybrid Bayesian Networks with Deterministic Variables | 46 |

Extracting the Core of a Persuasion Dialog to Evaluate Its Quality | 59 |

On Revising ArgumentationBased Decision Systems | 71 |

Hidden OneDependence Estimator | 481 |

On the Effectiveness of Diversity When Training Multiple Classiﬁer Systems | 493 |

On the Use of Clustering in Possibilistic Decision Tree Induction | 505 |

When in Doubt Be Indecisive | 518 |

Acyclic Directed Graphs to Represent Conditional Independence Models | 530 |

A Qualitative Point of View | 542 |

Integrated Likelihood in a Finitely Additive Setting | 554 |

Triangulation Heuristics for BN2O Networks | 566 |

Encompassing Attacks to Attacks in Abstract Argumentation Frameworks | 83 |

Some Mechanisms and Conditions for Their Coincidence | 95 |

Abstraction Principles and the Grounded Extension | 107 |

An Algorithm for Generating Arguments in Classical Predicate Logic | 119 |

Modelling Argument Accrual in Possibilistic Defeasible Logic Programming | 131 |

Handling Arguments in FOL Fragments | 144 |

Probability Density Estimation by Perturbing and Combining Tree Structured Markov Networks | 156 |

Integrating Ontological Knowledge for Iterative Causal Discovery and Visualization | 168 |

Binary Probability Trees for Bayesian Networks Inference | 180 |

Marginals of DAGIsomorphic Independence Models | 192 |

The Probabilistic Interpretation of ModelBased Diagnosis | 204 |

Simplifying Learning in Nonrepetitive Dynamic Bayesian Networks | 216 |

SurpriseBased Qualitative Probabilistic Networks | 228 |

Maximum Likelihood Learning of Conditional MTE Distributions | 240 |

A Generalization of the Pignistic Transform for Partial Bet | 252 |

Using Logic to Understand Relations between DSmT and DempsterShafer Theory | 264 |

Complexes of Outer Consonant Approximations | 275 |

The Intersection Probability and Its Properties | 287 |

Can the Minimum Rule of Possibility Theory Be Extended to Belief Functions? | 299 |

Capacity Reﬁnements and Their Application to Qualitative Decision Evaluation | 311 |

Belief Functions and Cluster Ensembles | 323 |

Upper Probabilities Attainable by Distributions of Measurable Selections | 335 |

Merging Qualitative Constraints Networks Using Propositional Logic | 347 |

DistanceBased Semantics for CStructure Belief Revision | 359 |

Merging Belief Bases Represented by Logic Programs | 371 |

Knowledge Base Stratiﬁcation and Merging Based on Degree of Support | 383 |

Using Transﬁnite Ordinal Conditional Functions | 396 |

The Nonarchimedean Polynomials and Merging of Stratiﬁed Knowledge Bases | 408 |

Encoding the Revision of Partially Preordered Information in Answer Set Programming | 421 |

A DistanceBased Operator to Revising Ontologies in DL 𝓢𝓗𝓞𝓠 | 434 |

An Experimental Study about Simple Decision Trees for Bagging Ensemble on Datasets with Classiﬁcation Noise | 446 |

Incremental Maintenance of Frequent Itemsets in Evidential Databases | 457 |

A Bayesian Random Split to Build Ensembles of Classiﬁcation Trees | 469 |

A Default Logic Patch for Default Logic | 578 |

A Note on Cumulative Stereotypical Reasoning | 590 |

Realizing Default Logic over Description Logic Knowledge Bases | 602 |

Dealing Automatically with Exceptions by Introducing Speciﬁcity in ASP | 614 |

Generalised Label Semantics as a Model of Epistemic Vagueness | 626 |

Handling Analogical Proportions in Classical Logic and Fuzzy Logics Settings | 638 |

Qualitative Possibilities and Necessities | 651 |

Probabilistic Reasoning by SAT Solvers | 663 |

Supporting Fuzzy Rough Sets in Fuzzy Description Logics | 676 |

Possibilistic Measures Taking Their Values in Spaces Given by InclusionClosed Fragments of PowerSets | 688 |

Different Representations of Fuzzy Vectors | 700 |

Methodology and a Case Study | 712 |

Application to Diabetes Analysis | 724 |

Brain Tumor Segmentation Using Support Vector Machines | 736 |

Ensemble Learning for Multisource Information Fusion | 748 |

Bayesian Belief Network for Tsunami Warning Decision Support | 757 |

Antidivision Queries with Ordinal Layered Preferences | 769 |

Predicting Stock and Portfolio Returns Using Mixtures of Truncated Exponentials | 781 |

Nondeterministic Distance Semantics for Handling Incomplete and Inconsistent Data | 793 |

A Simple Modal Logic for Reasoning about Revealed Beliefs | 805 |

Complexity and Cautiousness Results for Reasoning from Partially Preordered Belief Bases | 817 |

A Logic for Complete Information Systems | 829 |

An UncertaintyBased Belief Selection Method for POMDP Value Iteration | 841 |

Optimal Threshold Policies for Multivariate StoppingTime POMDPs | 850 |

An Evidential Measure of Risk in Evidential Markov Chains | 863 |

Algebras of Fuzzy Sets in Logics Based on Continuous Triangular Norms | 875 |

Soft Constraints Processing over Divisible Residuated Lattices | 887 |

Structures | 899 |

Gödel Logic | 911 |

Gödel Logic | 923 |

935 | |

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### Common terms and phrases

Abstract algebra algorithm applied approach argumentation framework Artiﬁcial Intelligence atoms axioms Bayesian Networks belief base belief functions belief revision belief structures Berlin Heidelberg 2009 BL-algebras Chemello Eds classiﬁer compute concept condition conﬂict consider consistent constraints database datasets decision trees default logic deﬁned Deﬁnition denoted description logics dialog diﬀerent distribution ECSQARU elements ensemble epistemic equivalent Example extension ﬁnite ﬁrst formula Fuzzy Sets given graph Heidelberg inference inﬂuences itemsets labels lattice Lemma LNAI LNCS logic program Machine Learning Markov measure merging operators MV-algebra node notion obtained ontology parameters partial preorder partition POMDP possibilistic possibility probabilistic probability problem Proof proposed Proposition QCNs random reasoning Removed Sets representation represented residuated lattice revision rules satisﬁes semantics Sossai and G speciﬁc Springer Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg subsets Sugeno Theorem uncertainty variables vector