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ELEMENT CHARACTERISTIC MATRICES AND INTER
CHARACTERISTIC MATRICES OF SOME STRAIN
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Assembly relationship axial stress boundary force coordinates crack element curvilinear coordinates deﬁned deﬁnition degrees of freedom derivatives displacement functions displacement method eigenvalues elastic element assembly matrix element natural ﬂexibility element output matrix element subroutine equilibrium equations expressed in terms Finite Element Methods force method force systems Fourth characteristic matrix given by Equation gives global components global system Hence independent force variables Integrated Theory interpolation functions Jacobian matrix membrane element midside nodes modulus of elasticity natural ﬂexibility matrix nodal displacements nodal force vectors redundant reinforcing members rigid body second characteristic matrix semi-monocoque shear ﬂow shear stress shown in Figure solid elements stiffness matrix strain element stress degrees stress ﬁeld stress functions stress output stress resultants structural displacements Substituting Equation Substituting from Equation substructures Theory of Finite third characteristic matrix transformation unit vectors vector at node virtual forces