Qalʻat Al-Bahrain: A Trading and Military Outpost 3rd Millennium B.C. - 17th Century A.D.
Monik Kervran, Fredrik Talmage Hiebert, Axelle Rougeulle
Isd, 2005 - History - 426 pages
This publication describes the fortress of Qal'at al-Bahrain. The fortress, dating from the beginning of the Islamic period, had been discovered in the north of the island of Bahrain. It aroused the interest of archaeologists working on the Islamic world. This site appeared to be related to the Umayyad fortified residences on the Syro-Palestinian steppe and was the first to be discovered outside the area of origin of this caliphate dynasty.
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The Middle Dilmun period phases II to VII by M Kervran F T Hiebert
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archaeological Ardashir Bahrain base Basin bastion beach bedrock brick-red ware buff pinkish buff slip building built casemate ceramic ware CERAMICS OF PHASE chaff temper clay construction corner counterscarp courtyard covered curtain Danish decoration ditch Early Dilmun enclosure ensemble excavations exterior and interior Field Nb Sound floor fragments graves greenish ware grey ware Hatra height Hojlund Holocene Hormuzi inside Iran Islamic island Kassite king of Bahrain layer located loopholes madbasa mark masonry medieval Medium buff ware Medium fine beige Medium pinkish ware Medium red ware meters mineral and chaff mineral temper moat Nb Sound Square Neck northeast occupation Parthian phase IXa phase VIII pinkish buff ware Portuguese potsherds pottery Qal'at al-Bahrain red slip reoccupation Salgharid sand temper Sasanid sherd Sound Square Description stones stratigraphical surface thick trench Tylos fortress Umayyad uncovered upper VIIIb whitish glaze whitish inclusions