Architectural Encounters with Essence and Form in Modern China

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MIT Press, 2004 - Architecture - 287 pages
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Built around snatches of discussion overheard in a Beijing design studio, this book explores attitudes toward architecture in China since the opening of the Treaty Ports in the 1840s. Central to the discussion are the concepts of ti and yong, or "essence" and "form," Chinese characters that are used to define the proper arrangement of what should be considered modern and essentially Chinese. Ti and yong have gone through various transformations -- for example, from "Chinese learning for essential principles and Western learning for practical application" to "socialist essence and cultural form" and an almost complete reversal to "modern essence and Chinese form."The book opens with a discussion of cultural developments in China in response to the forced opening to the West in the mid-nineteenth century, efforts to reform the Qing dynasty, and the Nationalist and Communist regimes. It then considers the return of overseas-educated Chinese architects and foreign influences on Chinese architecture, four architectural orientations toward tradition and modernity in the 1920s and 1930s, and the controversy over the use of "big roofs" and other sinicizing aspects of Chinese architecture in the 1950s. The book then moves to the hard economic conditions of the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, when architecture was almost abandoned, and the beginning of reform and opening up to the outside world in the late 1970s and 1980s. Finally, it looks at the present socialist market economy and Chinese architecture during the still incomplete process of modernization. It closes with a prognosis for the future.

 

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Contents

FOREIGN INFLUENCES AND THE FIRST GENERATION OF CHINESE ARCHITECTS
24
List of Illustrations 1 A segment of the plan of the Beijing urban area from the Qianlong period of the Qing dynasty ca 1735
26
A northernstyle siheyuan courtyard house
27
An ocular system of proportions in the Qing Tombs
29
Gothicrevival Xujiahui Catholic church Shanghai
31
The New Science Building at St Johns University Shanghai 1923
32
A view of the Bund Shanghai ca 1936
35
The headquarters of the German Administration Qingdao by Mahlke 19041906
39
The Museum of Chinese Revolution and History Beijing by Zhang Kaiji 1959
121
Shanghai in the manner of the Beijing WorkersGymnasium by Xiong Ming and Sun Bingyuan 1961
125
The National Gallery of Art Beijing by Dai Nianci 1962 126127
127
The Capital Stadium western Beijing by Zhang Depei Xiong Ming and Xu Zhenchang 19661968
130
East Wing of the Beijing Hotel by Zhang Bo 1972
131
Chiang Kaisheks Memorial Hall Taipei 1976
135
THE CULTURE FEVER
137
Fragrant Hill Hotel outside Beijing by I M Pei 1982
147

Government building in the Taisho neoclassical style Zhongshan Plaza Dalian 1919
40
The Qing Army Barracks in Beijing by Shen Qi 1909 4445
44
The Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Shanghai by Palmer and Turner 19211923
51
n Plan for the northern extension of Shanghai by Dong Dayou 1933
52
FOUR ARCHITECTURAL ATTITUDES TOWARD MODERNIZATION
55
Sassoon House Shanghai by Palmer and Turner 1929
59
The Embankment Building Shanghai by Palmer and Turner 1933
60
The Woo Wu Residence Shanghai by Laszlo Hudec 1933
62
Ginling College Nanjing by Henry K Murphy 19181923
67
The Sun Yatsen Mausoleum Nanjing by Lu Yanzhi 1925 7071
70
The Shanghai City Hall by Dong Dayou 1933
72
The firstplace plan for Nanjings central administrative area by Huang Yuyu and Zhu Shenkang 1928
75
The College of Sciences on Zhongshan campus Guangzhou by Lin Kerning 1933
77
Shenyang Railway Station by Yang Tingbao 1927
79
The Bank of China Shanghai by Palmer and Turner in collaboration with Lu Qianshou1937
80
Lilong housing in Shanghai
83
THE BIG ROOF CONTROVERSY
87
The Soviet Exhibition Hall Beijing by Sergei Andreyev 1953
93
The Friendship Hotel Beijing by Zhang Bo 1954
94
The Beihai Government Offices Beijing by Chen Dengao 1955
99
Standardized industrialized housing production
101
An interior street of the Broadcasting Work Unit Beijing
102
STRUGGLES WITH MODERNISM
107
The Peace Hotel Beijing by Yang Tingbao 19511953
109
The Main Building on the Qinghua campus Beijing by Guan Zhaoye and others 19571959
113
The Beijing Telecommunications Building by Lin Leyi 1958
115
Beijing Railway Station by Yang Tingbao 19581959 118119
119
The Great Hall of the People Beijing by Zhang Bo 1959
120
The garden court of the Jianguo Hotel Beijing by Clement Chen and Associates 1982
149
The Great Wall Hotel northeastern Beijing by Beckett International 1983
150
The Beijing Library by Yang Tingbao Dai Nianci Zhang Bo Wu Liangyong and Huang Yuanqiang 1989
153
Conservation of shophouses Suzhou
156
Housing in the Juer Hutong Beijing by Wu Liangyong 1989
157
A COMMODIFICATION AND INTERNATIONALIZATION OF ARCHITECTURE
161
The Shanghai Securities Exchange Building Pudong Shanghai by WZMH and the Shanghai Institute of Architectural Design and Research ca 1995
167
The Shanghai or Heritage Museum by Xing Tonghe 1995
168
The Jin Mao Building Pudong Shanghai by Skidmore Owingsand Merrill in conjunction with the East China Architectural Design Institute 19972000
170
theInterior of the Sun Dong An shopping complex Beijing by Wong Tung and Partners 1997
172
Main street Zhangjiagang 1997
173
The Xian Garden Hotel by Zhang Jinqiu 1984
176
Detail of the Shaanxi Museum of History Xian by Zhang Jinqiu 1991
178
The Bell Tower and Drum Tower Plaza Xian by Zhang Jinqiu 1996
181
The Western Railway Station Beijing by ZhuJialu 1996 184185
185
The Bank of China Hong Kong by I M Pei 19821990
188
The Grand Theatre in Shanghai by JeanMarie Charpentier in collaboration with the East China Architectural Design Institute 1998
190
The interior of the Shanghai International Airport Pudong Shanghai by Paul Andreu 1999
193
Proposal for the National Grand Theater Beijing by Paul Andreu 19992000
195
Model of the proposed development for the Lujiazui district of Pudong Shanghai ca 1997
196
Pedestrian precinct along Nanjing Road Shanghai by JeanMarie Charpentier Zheng Shiling and others ca 1999
198
MODERNIZATION IN CHINA
200
APPENDIX A PROFILES OF SELECTED CHINESE ARCHITECTS AND SCHOOLS
214
APPENDIX B GLOSSARY OF TERMS
232
NOTES
249
ILLUSTRATION CREDITS
267
Copyright

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Page 266 - Samuel P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996).
Page 266 - Jacques Derrida, Positions, translated by Alan Bass (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981), 82. Chapter 2 1. References to whitefeminist theorists' accounts of Derrida will appear throughout this chapter and the next.

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About the author (2004)

Seng Kuan is a graduate student at Harvard University and the founding editor of the Harvard Asia Pacific Review.

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