Jewish History in Conflict: A Study of the Major Discrepancy between Rabbinic and Conventional Chronology
The author writes:
“According to Seder Olam Rabbah, the work that forms the basis for almost all rabbinic chronology, the .period from the defeat of the Babylonians by the Medeo-Persians until the beginning of Greek rule, encompassed 52 years and spanned the reigns of three Persian kings. According to the chronology that is universally accepted by historians today (conventional chronology), this period of Persian rule over the land of Israel encompassed 207 years (539 to 332 BCE) and during this period more than ten Persian kings reigned.
“This discrepancy between the traditional Jewish chronology and conventional chronology has not gone unnoticed. The purpose of this study is to collect and categorize the variety of Jewish responses to this discrepancy, both by Jewish scholars and rabbinic authorities. Part I provides an introduction to the discrepancy. Part II contains the earliest Jewish responses to the discrepancy. In the major part of the study, Part III, the responses to the discrepancy from the time of Azariah de Rossi (16th century) to the present time are collected and categorized. This unified collection and categorization of the many responses will enable students and scholars to have easy access to what has been written by Jewish scholars and rabbinic authorities about the discrepancy and will facilitate scholarly evaluation of the responses.
“Part IV is an evaluation of the responses’ attempts to answer the fundamental question raised by the discrepancy. Part V presents observations on the rabbinic responses. Part VI is a summary and conclusion.”
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The Earliest Jewish Responses to the Discrepancy
Collection and Categorization of Jewish Responses from the Time of Azariah de Rossi through Modern Times ...
Evaluation of the Responses
Some Observations Regarding the Rabbinic Responses
Summary and Conclusion
The SO Chronology
The Conventional Chronology
Additional Note on the Identification of Ahashverosh with Xerxes
Early Jewish Authors who Adopt Chronologies of the Persian and Second Temple Periods that Differ from the SO Chronology
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20th century 34-year traditions Abraham Abravanel adopt the conventional Ahashverosh Akavya Amoraim Artaxerxes Artaxerxes II ArtScroll assign believes Bible book of Daniel book of Esther book of Ezra Cambyses century BCE chap commentary on Daniel conventional chronology count from creation Ctesias Cyrus Darius Daryavesh Daryavesh of Madai Daryavesh=Artahshasta dates destruction discrepancy exilic period Exodus express a chronology Ezra and Nehemiah Greek historians Hayyim high priests ibid included interpretation Jawitz Jerusalem Jews Josephus Josippon land of Israel lbid Malbim Medean Medeo-Persian period mentioned Nahmanides Note passage period of Persian period spanned 420 Persian dominion spanned Persian palaces Persian period spanned prediction at Daniel protracted rabbinic authorities rabbinic chronology rabbinic figures refers reign of Daryavesh reign of Koresh responses in category Rossi Saadiah Sages Schwab Second Temple period spanned the reigns statement suggests Talmud Tannaitic Temple period spanned terminus three Persian kings verses views the Persian writes Xerxes Yose