## Mathematical Proficiency for All Students: Toward a Strategic Research and Development Program in Mathematics EducationA clear need exists for substantial improvement in mathematics proficiency in U.S. schools. The RAND Mathematics Study Panel was convened to inform the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Educational Research and Improvement on ways to improve the quality and usability of education research and development (R&D). The panel identified three areas for focused R&D: development of teachers' mathematical knowledge used in teaching; teaching and learning of skills needed for mathematical thinking and problem-solving; and teaching and learning of algebra from kindergarten through the 12th grade. |

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### Contents

Chapter One INTRODUCTION | 1 |

ITS DEVELOPMENT AND USE IN TEACHING | 15 |

Chapter Three TEACHING AND LEARNING MATHEMATICAL PRACTICES | 29 |

Chapter Four TEACHING AND LEARNING ALGEBRA IN KINDERGARTEN THROUGH 12TH GRADE | 43 |

Chapter Five TOWARD A PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN GOVERNMENT AND THE MATHEMATICS EDUCATION RESEARCH COMMUNITY | 59 |

Chapter Six CONCLUSIONS | 77 |

BIBLIOGRAPHY | 81 |

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