## Introduction to Superstrings and M-TheorySuperstrings and M-theory: provocative and controversial, but unarguably one of the most interesting and active areas of research in current physics. Called by some, "the theory of everything," superstrings may solve a problem that has eluded physicists for the past 50 years, the final unification of the two great theories of the twentieth century, general relativity and quantum field theory. Now, here is a thoroughly revised, second edition of a course-tested comprehensive introductory graduate text on superstrings which stresses the most current areas of interest, not covered in other presentations, including: · Four-dimensional superstrings · Kac-Moody algebras · Teichmüller spaces and Calabi-Yau manifolds · M-theory Membranes and D-branes · Duality and BPS relations · Matrix models The book begins with a simple discussion of point particle theory, and uses Feynman path integrals to unify the presentation of superstrings. It has been updated throughout, and three new chapters on M-theory have been added. Prerequisites are an acquaintance with quantum mechanics and relativity. |

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### Contents

IV | 3 |

V | 7 |

VI | 18 |

VII | 25 |

VIII | 28 |

IX | 30 |

X | 34 |

XI | 37 |

LXXX | 335 |

LXXXI | 337 |

LXXXII | 341 |

LXXXIII | 346 |

LXXXIV | 348 |

LXXXV | 353 |

LXXXVI | 357 |

LXXXVII | 366 |

XII | 40 |

XIII | 44 |

XIV | 47 |

XV | 49 |

XVI | 60 |

XVII | 67 |

XVIII | 70 |

XIX | 72 |

XX | 78 |

XXI | 84 |

XXII | 87 |

XXIII | 90 |

XXIV | 95 |

XXV | 99 |

XXVI | 101 |

XXVII | 104 |

XXVIII | 111 |

XXIX | 117 |

XXX | 119 |

XXXI | 123 |

XXXII | 126 |

XXXIII | 128 |

XXXIV | 134 |

XXXV | 136 |

XXXVI | 139 |

XXXVII | 141 |

XXXVIII | 150 |

XXXIX | 155 |

XL | 158 |

XLI | 165 |

XLII | 167 |

XLIII | 170 |

XLIV | 174 |

XLVI | 177 |

XLVII | 178 |

XLVIII | 181 |

XLIX | 185 |

L | 192 |

LI | 195 |

LII | 200 |

LIII | 210 |

LIV | 217 |

LV | 221 |

LVI | 224 |

LVII | 226 |

LVIII | 238 |

LIX | 242 |

LX | 245 |

LXI | 247 |

LXII | 250 |

LXIII | 254 |

LXIV | 261 |

LXV | 267 |

LXVI | 272 |

LXVII | 275 |

LXVIII | 280 |

LXIX | 286 |

LXX | 290 |

LXXI | 291 |

LXXII | 297 |

LXXIII | 300 |

LXXIV | 303 |

LXXV | 308 |

LXXVI | 311 |

LXXVII | 317 |

LXXVIII | 328 |

LXXIX | 331 |

LXXXVIII | 368 |

LXXXIX | 372 |

XC | 373 |

XCI | 378 |

XCII | 383 |

XCIII | 386 |

XCIV | 388 |

XCV | 391 |

XCVI | 395 |

XCVII | 398 |

XCVIII | 400 |

XCIX | 403 |

C | 404 |

CI | 409 |

CII | 413 |

CIII | 419 |

CIV | 426 |

CV | 428 |

CVI | 432 |

CVII | 434 |

CVIII | 438 |

CIX | 449 |

CX | 453 |

CXI | 455 |

CXII | 457 |

CXIII | 458 |

CXIV | 460 |

CXV | 462 |

CXVI | 465 |

CXVII | 466 |

CXVIII | 469 |

CXIX | 471 |

CXX | 473 |

CXXII | 476 |

CXXIII | 480 |

CXXIV | 482 |

CXXV | 484 |

CXXVI | 488 |

CXXVII | 490 |

CXXVIII | 491 |

CXXIX | 494 |

CXXX | 496 |

CXXXI | 497 |

CXXXII | 499 |

CXXXIII | 501 |

CXXXIV | 502 |

CXXXV | 504 |

CXXXVI | 510 |

CXXXVII | 511 |

CXXXVIII | 513 |

CXXXIX | 516 |

CXL | 517 |

CXLI | 521 |

CXLII | 525 |

CXLIII | 532 |

CXLIV | 537 |

CXLV | 542 |

544 | |

CXLVII | 545 |

CXLIX | 557 |

CL | 561 |

CLI | 566 |

CLII | 573 |

CLIII | 577 |

579 | |

581 | |

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### Common terms and phrases

10-dimensional action algebra amplitude anomaly anticommuting antisymmetric arbitrary bosonic BRST calculate chiral closed string compactified complex components conformal field theory constraints construct coupling covariant derived diagrams dimensional dimensions Dirac divergence duality eliminate equations of motion Euler number explicitly factor Faddeev-Popov fermions Feynman Fock space formalism functional integral gauge group ghost number Hamiltonian harmonic oscillator heterotic string identity infinite number interactions Kahler lattice Let us define Lett light cone light cone gauge loop Lorentz M-theory manifold massless matrix elements membrane metric modular invariance momentum multiloop Neumann function nonperturbative Notice NS-R Nucl on-shell open string operator orbifolds p-brane parameters path integral Phys point particle propagator quantum representation Riemann surface satisfy scalar second quantized single-loop space-time spin spinor string field theory string theory supergravity superstring theory supersymmetry symmetry tachyon tensor topologies Type IIA Type IIB theory vacua vacuum variables vector vertex function Virasoro world sheet Yang-Mills yields