An introduction to vegetable physiology

Front Cover
J. & A. Churchill, 1900 - Botany, Physiological and structural - 459 pages
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Contents

Volvox Globator
10
Cojnocytic Suspensor of Orobus
11
Filaments of Nostoc
12
Vegetable Cells Adult
13
Continuity of Protoplasm in Seed
16
CHAPTER II
17
Continuity of Protoplasm in Seaweed 1G 19 Thallus of Pelvetia
18
Stem of Sphagnum
19
Cork Cells
20
Collenchyma
21
Diagram of Course of Vascular Bundles in a Dicotyledonous plant
23
Section of Bhizome of Fern
26
Section of Leaf of Pinus
27
Vascular Bundle of Monocotyledon
28
Different Arrangements of Stereome in Herbaceous Plants
29
Chloroplasts in Cell
30
Section of Stem of Potamogeton
31
Cortex of Boot
32
Stomata on Lower Surface of Leaf
33
FIg 1AGE 39 Section of a Lenticel
34
CHAPTER III
36
Section of Dicotyledonous Stems of two ages
38
Embryo of Orobus
39
Stratification in Cellwalls
45
Section of Epidermis of Leaf
48
Cork in Twig of Lime
49
Crystals in Wall of Cell of Bast
50
THE RELATION OF WATER TO THE PROTOPLASM
53
Apparatus to show the process of Osmosis
55
Young Vegetable Cells
56
Adult Vegetable Cells
57
Cells undergoing Plasmolysis
59
CHAPTEE V
66
Kootlets with Boothairs
68
Boothair in contact with Soil
69
Section of Young Boot
70
Diagram of Course of Vascular Bundles in a Dicotyledonous Plant
71
Veins of a Leaf
73
Stomata on Lower Surface of Leaf
75
Apparatus for the Estimation of Bootpressure
84
Apparatus to demonstrate Transpiration
89
Section of Blade of Leaf
90
Apparatus to show Dependence of Withering on Loss of Water
91
Stomata on Lower Surface of Leaf
93
Darwins Potometer
97
9 Apparatus to show the Suction of Transpiration
99
Ending of a Vascular Bundle in a Leaf
101
CHAPTER VII
103
Formation of Intercellular Spaces
104
Intercellular Spaces in Boot
105
Intercellular Spaces in Leaf
106
Section of Bhizome of Marsilea
107
Section of Stem of Potamogetcm
108
Section of Stem of Equisetum
109
Section of Stem of Juncus
110
Section of a Lenticel
111
Apparatus to show Continuity of Intercellular Spaces in a Leaf Ill 81 Section of Leaf of Heath
112
CHAPTER VIII
118
Apparatus to show the Absorption of Oxygen by a Green Plant
119
Apparatus to show Exhalation of Carbon Dioxide by Germinating Seeds
121
THE FOOD OF PLANTS INTRODUCTORY
132
CHAPTER X
140
Boot of a Leguminous Plant with its Tubercles
148
Section of Blade of Leaf
153
CHAPTEE XI
155
Absorption Spectra of Chlorophyll and Xanthophyll
157
ss Section of Leaf of Beta
160
Section of Stem of Equisetum
161
Apparatus to show the Evolution of Oxygen by a Green Plant
165
THE CONSTRUCTION OF PROTEIDS
173
CHAPTEE XIII
184
Plants of Buckwheat cultivated in various nutritive solutions
186
Aleurone Grains in Cell of Ricinus
190
Leaf of Dionua
208
Section of Lichen
211
Mycorhiza on Beech Boot
213
Plant of Thesium
215
Sucker of Thesium
216
Plant infested with Dodder
217
Haustoria of Dodder
218
Starch Grains in Chloroplast
228
Section of Stem of Ricinus
239
Section of Stem of Tilia three years old
240
Starch Grains in Chloroplast
242
Starch Grains in Cell of Potato
243
Compound and Semicompound Starch Grains
244
Laticiferous Cell of Euphorbia
245
Inulin Sphaerocrystals
247
Aleurone Layer of Barley
248
Cells of Embryo of Pea
249
Section of Oat Grain
260
Gland of Drosera
261
Corrosion of Starch Grains by Diastase
263
Glandular Hairs of Primula
283
Oil Beservoirs of Hypericum
286
Crystals of Oxalate of Calcium in Cells
287
Absorption Spectra of Chlorophyll and Xanthophyll
293
Longitudinal Section of Growing Point of Root
306
Section of Stem of Bush
308
Adult Vegetable Cells 310
310
Begion of Growth in Boot of Bean 31
314
CHAPTER XXII
326
Air Passages in Potamogeton
331
Leaf of Isoetes
332
Petiole of Waterlily
333
Bhizome of Marsilea
335
Watergland of Saxifraga
337
Leaf of Heath
339
Suckers of Thesium
342
Section of a Sucker
343
CHAPTER XXIII
345
Zoospore of Ulothrix
346
Plasmodium of a Myxomyccte
347
Cells from Leaf of Elodea
350
Leaf of Telegraph Plant 35 5
356
CHAPTER XXIV
368
Desmodium gyrans day and night position
373
Nicotiana glauca day and night position
374
Pulvinus of Mimosa
376
arwins Klinostat
383
Section of Sucker of Thesium 38j 160 Haustoria of Cuscuta
390
Leaf of Dioncea
391
The same
394
Response of an organism to changes in its surroundingsNature
396
CHAPTEE VI
397
Continuity of Protoplasm through the Cellwall
404
Distinction between the individual protoplast and the colony or plant
411
Yeast Plants
413
Stages in Karyokinetic Division of the Nucleus
414
Zoospore of Ulothrix
418
Mycelium of Mucor
419
Stylogonidia of Eurotium
420
Filament of Ulothrix with Gametes escaping
421
Oogonium of Fucus
423
Procarpium of a Bed Seaweed
424
Arehegonium of Fern
425
1rothallium of Fern
428
Germination of Microspores of Salvinia
429
Germination of Megaspore of Salvinia
431
Ovule of Pinus
432
Antherozoids of Moss and Fern
434
Antheridium of Fern
435
CHAPTEE XXVII
437
Pollination and its mechanismsAdvantages of crosspollination
448
THE TRANSPIRATION CURRENT ROOT PRESSURE
453

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Page 169 - ... which goes to construct proteid, by combining with the nitrogen and sulphur absorbed in the form of salts from the soil, or with the nitrogenous residues of previous decompositions of proteid. It is supposed, however, that starch may, nevertheless, be the first visible product of the constructive metabolism ; since, unless protoplasm were being formed, no starch could be produced. This view is partly founded on the consideration...
Page 114 - The dividing line between serious and non-serious violence against the person is one which may well vary from time to time and from place to place, according to the attitudes of the culture in which the event occurs.
Page 441 - ... a much divided or plumose stigma, often furnished with hairs, so that pollen falling on it may be readily retained. On the other hand, anemophilous flowers are always inconspicuous and of a comparatively humble type. Flowers which are pollinated by insects are usually much larger and more showy, and are often very highly coloured and provided with characteristic odours. Their perianths and sometimes their sporophylls are highly modified to adapt them to the habits of their insect visitors....
Page 372 - In considering broadly the result of stimulation we must notice at the outset that it provokes a purposeful response. The living substance appears to have a definite aim...
Page 42 - Pectine swells up and dissolves in water, forming a viscous liquid which soon becomes a jelly. It exists in considerable quantity in many ripe fruits and in some mucilages. It gives no precipitate with the neutral acetate of lead, but is thrown down by the basic acetate in the form of white flocculi.
Page 167 - Sugars are what are called optically active compounds; that is, they possess the power of deflecting a ray of polarised light to the right or to the left as the latter is made to pass through either crystals or a solution of them.
Page 363 - ... the reaction of its sap is much more acid. The chloroplasts do not become green, the pigment which they contain, known as etiolin, being a pale yellow. In the leaves the differentiation of the mesophyll into palisade and spongy parenchyma does not take place.
Page 440 - ... young cuttings have sent forth their flowers. The plant, on the other hand, sent from Rio Janeiro, although treated in the same way as the other, has not flowered.* The former, although flowering freely, has not produced perfect fruit until the present year. The plants were carefully fertilised by the application of the pollen of one flower to the stigma of another. By this means we have secured a number of fruiting specimens, and I now exhibit fruiting plants with drawings of the fruit and sections....
Page 309 - We have seen that the constructive processes, partly anabolic and partly katabolie, are much greater than those which lead to the disappearance of material from the plant-body. The result of this is that there is a conspicuous increase in the substance of the plant, as well as an accumulation of potential energy which can be made use of by the plant through various decompositions which its protoplasm can set up. The great permanent accumulation of material is what we associate with the processes...
Page 355 - Each band is in a particular phase of its rhythm at any given moment, and the successive bands follow one another through the phases of their rhythm in orderly sequence, so that when one is at its maximum, another diametrically opposite to it is at its minimum. The phases of maximum and minimum turgidity thus pass rhythmically round the organ, and the apex is consequently compelled to describe ii spiral line as it grows.

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