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Studying Politics Scientifically
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Amtrak answers behavior calculated campaign candidates causal Chapter cluster sample concept congressional control groups correlation crime crosstab crosstabulation data collection Democratic dependent variable descriptive statistics discussed distribution effect empirical evaluate example experiment experimental group explain factors frequency hypothesis Hypothetical data Ibid income independent and dependent indicate interest level measures level of measurement mailed surveys mean nonprobability samples normal distribution ordinal level participant observation percent phenomenon political phenomena political science political scientists population density post-test pre-test predicted presidential voting problem Public Opinion Quarterly questionnaire questions random ratio level relationship reliability Republican research design research methods research project researcher's respondents response rates sampling frame scientific knowledge scores selected simple random sample social standard deviation stratified sampling subjects subsidize Amtrak Survey Research Table target population telephone interviews tion turnout unexplained variance unit of analysis validity values variance voter written record