Due to continual progress in the large-scale integration of semiconductor circuits, parallel computing principles can already be met in low-cost sys tems: numerous examples exist in image processing, for which special hard ware is implementable with quite modest resources even by nonprofessional designers. Principles of content addressing, if thoroughly understood, can thereby be applied effectively using standard components. On the other hand, mass storage based on associative principles still exists only in the long term plans of computer technologists. This situation is somewhat confused by the fact that certain expectations are held for the development of new storage media such as optical memories and "spin glasses" (metal alloys with low-density magnetic impurities). Their technologies, however, may not ripen until after "fifth generation" computers have been built. It seems that software methods for content addressing, especially those based on hash coding principles, are still holding their position firmly, and a few innovations have been developed recently. As they need no special hardware, one might expect that they will spread to a wide circle of users. This monograph is based on an extensive literature survey, most of which was published in the First Edition. I have added Chap. ?, which contains a review of more recent work. This updated book now has references to over 1200 original publications. In the editing of the new material, I received valuable help from Anneli HeimbUrger, M. Sc. , and Mrs. Leila Koivisto.
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Content Addressing by Software
Logic Principles of ContentAddressable Memories
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algorithm application arithmetic Assume average number binary bit cell bit positions bit slices bit value bit-slice block Boolean Boolean function bucket buffer calculated address CAM array cf Sect chain collisions comparison content-addressable memories contents corresponding defined deleted digits discussed division method empty location entries example flag flip-flops hardware hash address hash coding hash index table hash table hashing function identifier implementation input linear probing load factor magnetic marker masked match memory area microprogram mod H named number of searches numerical value occur open addressing operation output overflow area parallel pattern performed pointers possible primary storage principle probing sequence processing processor pseudorandom pseudorandom numbers quadratic probing random probing reading relation representation reserve locations respectively results store retrieval search argument secondary storage sequential shown in Fig signals STARAN string tion usually variables vector whereby word line word location