Archaeologica: The World's Most Significant Sites and Cultural Treasures

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Frances Lincoln Limited, 2007 - Antiquities - 400 pages
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Archaeology helps us to comprehend the vast history of humankind by sifting through the remains of earlier cultures and civilizations. Written by an international team of archaeologists, historians, and cultural anthropologists, Archaeologica delves into this thrilling realm, taking readers on a unique journey into antiquity. The first part of the book introduces the history and science of archaeology, from the first chroniclers of earlier peoples to the use of techniques such as satellite imagery, DNA analysis and three-dimensional computer simulations. The second section details the compelling history of over 150 sites from more than 50 countries. Archaeologica is illustrated with more than 550 images – including historical photos, scenic site shots, and pictures of key artefacts – as well as over 20 detailed regional maps and 150 locator maps. These images and maps bring the past to life, ensuring that the book will become a favourite guide for history buffs and amateur archaeologists alike.

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What was the reason to skip Slovakia?
Because the location of Slovakia, Slovakia always play important role in history of mankind.
The Beginning.
The oldest surviving archeological artefacts from
Slovakia date back to 270,000 BCE, the Early Paleolithic Era, and were found near Nov Mesto nad Vahom. These ancient tools were made by the Clactonian technique and are a potent reminder of the ancient inhabitant of the geographical regions known today as Slovakia. Prehistoric trade routes Amber and Silk Roads.
Other stone tools from the Middle Paleolithic Era (200,000 - 80,000 BCE) were discovered in the Prvt cave near Bojnice and other nearby sites. Artefacts were discovered dating back to the Paleolithic Stage, include the famous Cranium Mold of a Neanderthal, discovered near Gnovec, a village in Northern Slovakia.
Homo sapien skeletons were also discovered on in this region. Numerous objects and vestiges of the era of the Gravettian culture have also been found, principally in the river valleys of Nitra, Hron, Ipel, Vh and as far as the city of Zilina, and near the foot of the Virhorlat, Inovec and Trbec mountains and the Myjava Mountains. Among the most well-known find is the oldest female statue made of mammoth bone, discovered in the commune of Moravany nad Vhom, near Pieštany, a spa resort known worldwide. Numerous necklaces made of shells from Cypraca thermophile gastropods of the Tertiary Period have been discovered at the sites of Zkovsk, Podkovice, Hubina, and Radošinaare These findings are the most ancient evidence of commercial exchanges carried out between the Mediterranean and Central Europe.
From an archeological standpoint, the discovery of different instruments and objects made of pottery in several archeological digs and burial places scattered across the Slovakian Territory, and even more surprising, in the northern regions at relatively high altitudes, give evidence to human habitation in the Neolithic period. The pottery of Zeliezovce, that of Gemer and of the Massif Bukov hory is characterized by remarkable modelling and by delicate linear decoration, revealing the first attempts at coloring. These shapes reveal a developed of aesthetic sense.
Several caves have also been discovered in Slovakian territory. One is the famous Domnica cave, almost 6000 meters long, which was inhabited down to a depth of 700 meters. This cave is one of the biggest Neolithic deposits in Europe and was inhabited continuously for more than 800 years by the same tribes who created the pottery from the Massif Bukov hory. A witness to the Pre-Neolithic era is the Luzianky group, found near Nitra and also the Lengyel pottery and the group of Bolerz pottery.
The transition towards the Neolithic Era in Central Europe was characterized by the arrival of Indo-European peoples, by the settling of populations, the development of agriculture and the clearing of pastures, the first transformation of metals at the local level, by the "Retz" style pottery and also by fluted pottery. During the 'fluted-pottery' era, several fortified sites were built and some vestiges remain today, especially in high-altitude areas. The most well-known being the Nitriansky Hrdok site, which is surrounded by pits. Starting in the Neolithic Era, the geographic location of present-day Slovakia was dense trade network for goods such as shells, amber, jewels and weapons. As a result, it became an important crossroads of European trade routes.
The Bronze Age in Slovakia went through three stages of development, which stretched from 2000-800 BCE. The most well-known culture of that era was the funeral culture of the Carpathians and that of the middle Danube. During the later Neolithic Age, a considerable growth in cultural regions took place in Slovakia. This phenomena was linked to a large development in local copper manufacturing, especially in Central Slovakia and North-West Slovakia. This metal became a permanent source of enrichment for the local population. After the disappearance of the Cakany and Velatice civilizations, it was

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