From the Ptolemies to the Romans: Political and Economic Change in Egypt
This book gives a structured account of Egypt's transition from Ptolemaic to Roman rule by identifying key relationships between ecology, land tenure, taxation, administration and politics. It introduces theoretical perspectives from the social sciences and subjects them to empirical scrutiny using data from Greek and Demotic papyri as well as comparative evidence. Although building on recent scholarship, it offers some provocative arguments that challenge prevailing views. For example, patterns of land ownership are linked to population density and are seen as one aspect of continuity between the Ptolemaic and Roman period. Fiscal reform, by contrast, emerges as a significant mechanism of change not only in the agrarian economy but also in the administrative system and the whole social structure. Anyone seeking to understand the impact of Roman rule in the Hellenistic east must consider the well-attested processes in Egypt that this book seeks to explain.
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Geography and population
The regionalism ofland tenure
The continuity of agrarian institutions
Land taxation and investment 159
Administration and redistribution
administration agrarian agricultural Alexandria archive Arsinoite nome artaba per aroura attested Bagnall beneﬁts Bingen Bowman and Rathbone Chapter Clarysse and Thompson cleruchic land conﬁscated contracts Delta Demotic drachmas economic Edfu elites evidence Fayyum ﬁgures ﬁrst century ﬁscal regime ﬁxed taxes ﬂood Greek gymnasial harvest taxes Hellenistic Herakleopolite inﬂuence institutions Jordens katoikic land Kerkeosiris Krokodilopolis land rights land survey land tenure landholders lines Nile Valley nome capitals ofﬁcials ofland ofthe Oxyrhynchus papyrus Pathyris Pathyrite peasants political population density priests private land proﬁt property rights Ptol Ptolemaic and Roman Ptolemaic Egypt Ptolemaic period public land redistribution reﬂect reforms regional registers rent revenue Roman Egypt Roman period Roman rule Rostovtzeff Rowlandson 1996 royal land royal ofﬁcials Scheidel scribe second century BCE settlers social Soknopaiou Nesos speciﬁc status suggests tax farmers tax farming taxation Tebt Tebtunis temple estates temple land tenants Thebaid Upper Egypt Vandorpe village Wilcken