The Art of Railroading: Or, The Technique of Modern Transportation, Volume 1

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Calvin Franklin Swingle, Frederick John Prior
Railway publications society, 1906 - Air-brakes
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Page 219 - Every body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line, except in so far as it may be compelled by impressed forces to change that state.
Page 77 - To find the area of a circular SEGMENT by the TABLE. Divide the height of the segment by the diameter of the circle ; look for the quotient in the column of heights in the table ; take out the corresponding number in the column of areas ; and multiply it by the square of the diameter. It is to be observed, that the figures in each of the columns in the table are decimals. If accuracy is required, and the quotient...
Page 280 - On account of the great similarity lo single-expansion locomotives, mechanics familiar with the latter have no difficulty in understanding these compound locomotives. There is no new element of repairs introduced, no complicated starting or reducing valves, such as are common to other systems of compound locomotives. The cross-heads, when badly worn, may, in a short time, be retinned by any coppersmith; in fact, an ordinary laborer can be taught this in a few days. The cross-head...
Page 28 - Specific Heat. The specific heat of any substance is the ratio of the quantity of heat required to raise a given weight of that substance one degree in temperature to the quantity of heat required to raise an equal weight of water one degree in temperature when the water is at its maximum density, 39.1 F.
Page 287 - Therefore, the heating surfaces and grate area are practically the same in both types, and the evaporative efficiency of both locomotives is determined by the action of the exhaust, which must be of sufficient intensity in "both cases to generate the amount of steam necessary for utilizing, to the best advantage, the weight on the driving-wheels. This is a feature that does not appear in a stationary engine, so that the compound locomotive cannot be judged by stationary standards, and the only true...
Page 284 - This allows the air to circulate either way through (he starting-valve from one side of the piston to the other, relieves the vacuum, and prevents the oil from being blown out of the cylinder. On ascending grades with heavy loads as the speed decreases the reverse lever should be moved forward sufficiently to keep up the required speed. If, after the reverse lever is placed in the full forward notch, the speed still decreases and there is danger of stalling, the starting-valve may be used, admitting...
Page 266 - Fig. 48 shows the arrangement of the cylinders in relation to the valve. The valve employed to distribute the steam to the cylinders is of the piston type, working in a cylindrical steam-chest located in the saddle of the cylinder casting between the cylinders and the smoke-box and as close to the cylinders as convenience will permit. As the steam-chest must have the necessary steam passages cast in it and...
Page 296 - The steam passes from the front of the high-pressure cylinder through the valve to the front of the low-pressure cylinder, or from the back of the high-pressure to the back of the low-pressure cylinder. The exhaust from the low-pressure cylinder takes place through external cavities under the front and back portion of the valve, which communicate with the final exhaust port. The starting valve connects the two live steam ports of the high-pressure cylinder to allow the steam to pass over the piston....
Page 280 - ... drop her a notch" on account of "getting away with the water." This does not occur with the compound locomotive when the reverse lever is moved forward towards full gear, and no engineer should open the pass-by valve, admitting live steam to the low-pressure cylinder, until the last notch has been used on the quadrant and the engine is about to stall. It is also desirable to move the reverse forward a notch before the locomotive slows down too much, as it is better to preserve the momentum of...
Page 294 - FIGURE 135 and between the two cylinders which they are arranged to control. A separate set of guides and connections is required for each cylinder. The two high-pressure cylinders being placed inside the frames, the pistons are necessarily coupled to a crank axle. The low-pressure pistons are coupled to crank-pins on the outside of the driving wheels.

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