## Structure Formation in the UniverseUnderstanding the way in which large-scale structures such as galaxies form remains the most challenging problem in cosmology today. This text provides an up-to-date and pedagogical introduction to this exciting area of research. Part 1 deals with the Friedmann model, the thermal history of the universe, and includes a description of observed structures in the universe. Part 2 describes the theory of gravitational instability in both the linear and nonlinear regimes. This part also includes chapters on the microwave background radiation, Large-scale velocity fields, quasars, and high redshift objects. Part 3 of the book covers inflation, cosmic strings, and dark matter. Each chapter is accompanied by a comprehensive set of exercises to help the reader in self-study. |

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### Contents

Introducing the universe | 3 |

13 Stars | 8 |

14 Galaxies | 15 |

15 Models for galaxies | 20 |

16 Distribution of matter | 25 |

17 Expansion of the universe | 28 |

18 Quasars | 31 |

19 Radiation in the universe | 34 |

66 Intrinsic anisotropies | 233 |

67 Damping of the anisotropies | 237 |

68 Spectral distortions due to ionized gas | 239 |

Exercises | 245 |

Velocity fields | 248 |

73 Theoretical constraints on peculiar velocities | 261 |

Exercises | 267 |

Towards a more complete picture | 271 |

110 Determination of extragalactic distances | 37 |

111 Age of various structures | 40 |

Exercises | 42 |

The Friedmann model | 49 |

23 Kinematic properties of the Friedmann universe | 54 |

24 The dynamics of the Friedmann model | 59 |

25 Radiative processes in expanding universe | 70 |

26 The Hubble radius | 73 |

Exercises | 76 |

Thermal history of the universe | 82 |

33 Relic background of relativistic particles | 90 |

34 Relic background of wimps | 96 |

35 Synthesis of light nuclei | 101 |

36 Decoupling of matter and radiation | 108 |

Exercises | 118 |

The clumpy universe | 123 |

Linear theory of perturbations | 125 |

43 The linear perturbation theory | 136 |

44 Gravitational instability in the relativistic case | 149 |

45 Solutions to the Newtonian perturbation equation | 160 |

46 Dissipation in dark matter and baryons | 167 |

47 The processed final spectrum | 173 |

Exercises | 179 |

Statistical properties | 186 |

53 Gaussian probability functional | 189 |

54 Spatial averages and filter functions | 194 |

55 Normalization of the fluctuation spectrum | 200 |

56 The time evolution of the correlation function | 203 |

57 Correlation of high density regions | 206 |

58 Mass functions | 210 |

Exercises | 214 |

Microwave background radiation | 217 |

63 Propagation of light in a perturbed universe | 222 |

64 Anisotropy due to variations in the potential | 228 |

65 Anisotropies due to peculiar velocities | 231 |

The nonlinear evolution | 273 |

83 Scaling laws | 285 |

84 The masses of galaxies | 287 |

85 Zeldovich approximation | 294 |

86 The adhesion model | 299 |

87 The angular momentum of galaxies | 305 |

88 Formation of disc galaxies | 307 |

89 The formation of elliptical galaxies | 310 |

810 Nonlinear evolution using Nbody simulations | 313 |

Exercises | 320 |

High redshift objects | 325 |

93 Quasars and galaxy formation | 331 |

94 Absorption spectra of quasars | 339 |

95 High redshift radio galaxies | 349 |

Exercises | 352 |

The origin of perturbations | 353 |

103 The epicycles of inflation | 360 |

104 Origin of density perturbations | 364 |

105 Cosmic strings | 373 |

Exercises | 377 |

Dark matter | 382 |

113 Nature of dark matter | 395 |

114 Massive neutrinos | 401 |

115 Axions | 404 |

116 Cosmological constant as dark matter | 407 |

Exercises | 410 |

Epilogue | 415 |

Aspects of general relativity | 423 |

Aspects of field theory | 439 |

COBE results and implications | 445 |

451 | |

Some useful numbers | 474 |

475 | |

### Common terms and phrases

angular anisotropy approximation assume axion baryons bound chapter clusters cold dark matter collapse comoving component Compton scattering Consider constant cooling coordinate correlation function corresponding cosmological curve decoupling defined density contrast depends derived determined disc disc galaxies discussed distance electrons ellipticals energy density enters the Hubble epoch equation estimate evolution expansion expression factor fermions fluctuations follows Friedmann galactic Gaussian gravitational field halo hand side Hence hot dark matter Hubble radius hydrogen integral interaction intergalactic medium ionized linear theory luminosity Lyman-a mass matter dominated metric modes neutrinos Newtonian nonlinear number density observed obtain parameter particles peculiar velocities perturbation photons Planck spectrum power spectrum quantity quasars radiation dominated phase radio galaxies range ratio redshift region relation relativistic result Show solution spacetime spherical stars structures temperature tensor term timescale transformation universe velocity field wavelength wimps window function