Neutron Stars and Pulsars

Front Cover
Werner Becker
Springer Science & Business Media, Feb 11, 2009 - Science - 697 pages

Neutron stars are the most compact astronomical objects in the universe which are accessible by direct observation. Studying neutron stars means studying physics in regimes unattainable in any terrestrial laboratory.

Understanding their observed complex phenomena requires a wide range of scientific disciplines, including the nuclear and condensed matter physics of very dense matter in neutron star interiors, plasma physics and quantum electrodynamics of magnetospheres, and the relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics of electron-positron pulsar winds interacting with some ambient medium. Not to mention the test bed neutron stars provide for general relativity theories, and their importance as potential sources of gravitational waves. It is this variety of disciplines which, among others, makes neutron star research so fascinating, not only for those who have been working in the field for many years but also for students and young scientists.

The aim of this book is to serve as a reference work which not only reviews the progress made since the early days of pulsar astronomy, but especially focuses on questions such as: "What have we learned about the subject and how did we learn it?", "What are the most important open questions in this area?" and "What new tools, telescopes, observations, and calculations are needed to answer these questions?".

All authors who have contributed to this book have devoted a significant part of their scientific careers to exploring the nature of neutron stars and understanding pulsars. Everyone has paid special attention to writing educational comprehensive review articles with the needs of beginners, students and young scientists as potential readers in mind. This book will be a valuable source of information for these groups.

 

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riddled with typographical and grammatical errors

Contents

142 Magnetic Field Changes in Spinning Down Neutron Stars
358
143 Magnetic Dipole Field Changes in Spinning Up NSs
359
144 Comparisons of Pulsar Dipole Field Observations with Model Expectations
362
145 Polar Cap Areas
363
146 Pulsar SpinPeriod Glitches from SpinInduced BField Changes
365
147 Open Questions and Summary
368
References
370
Where to Go Jonathan Arons 151 Introduction
373

22 Parkes MultiBeam Pulsar Surveys
22
23 Other Recent Surveys
25
24 Pulsar Nulling and Mode Changing
27
25 Pulse Modulation and Drifting
31
26 Giant and NotSoGiant Pulses
33
27 Transient Radio Emission from a Magnetar
35
Proper Motion Correlation
36
29 Conclusions References
38
3 Rotating Radio Transients Maura McLaughlin 31 Introduction
41
32 The Discovery of Rotating Radio Transients
43
33 Ongoing Radio Observations of the RRATs
48
34 XRay Properties of the RRATs
54
35 What Are They?
59
36 Population Estimates
61
37 Recent Discoveries
63
38 Concluding Remarks
64
References
65
4 Intermittent Pulsars Andrew G Lyne 41 Introduction 42 PSR B1931+24
67
43 Discussion
70
References
72
A Unique Lab for Relativistic Plasma Physics and Tests of General Relativity Michael Kramer 51 Introduction
73
52 The Double Pulsar
74
53 Orbital Decay Measurements and Alternative Theories of Gravity 54 Future Tests
88
55 Concluding Remarks
89
References
90
6 XRay Emission from Pulsars and Neutron Stars Werner Becker 61 Introduction
91
62 Physics and Astrophysics of Isolated Neutron Stars
95
63 HighEnergy Emission Properties of Neutron Stars
103
64 Summary
125
References
137
The Challenge of Simplicity Roberto Turolla 71 Introduction
141
72 The Magnificent Seven in Parade
144
73 Modeling the Surface Emission
149
74 Open Issues and Future Perspectives
158
References
161
8 Millisecond Pulsars in Globular Clusters and the Field Jonathan E Grindlay and Slavko Bogdanov 81 Introduction
164
82 Early XRay Studies of MSPs
166
83 Chandra Studies of MSPs in Globular Clusters
167
84 MSPs as Beacons for Constraining the Neutron Star Equation of State
174
85 Future Prospects
177
References
179
9 Theory of Radiative Transfer in Neutron Star Atmospheres and Its Applications Vyacheslav E Zavlin 91 Introduction
181
92 Properties of Xray Emission from Isolated Neutron Stars
182
93 Modeling Thermal Radiation from Neutron Stars
183
Observational Results
194
95 Concluding Remarks
207
References
209
10 Neutron Star Interiors and the Equation of State of Superdense Matter Fridolin Weber Rodrigo Negreiros and Philip Rosenfield 101 Introduction
213
102 Neutron Star Masses
215
103 Composition of Cold and Dense Neutron Star Matter
217
104 Strange Quark Matter
226
105 Proto Neutron Star Matter
228
106 Rotational Instabilities
230
107 Net Electric Fields and Compact Star Structure
232
108 Conclusions and Outlook
237
References
241
I Dany Page 111 Introduction
246
112 The Essential Physics of Neutron Star Cooling
249
113 Minimal Cooling of Neutron Stars
268
114 Fast Cooling of Neutron Stars
275
Magnetic Fields
280
116 Conclusions and Future Prospects
284
References
286
II Sachiko Tsuruta 121 Introduction
289
122 Basic Equations and Input Physics
292
123 Neutron Star Thermal Evolution Models
304
124 Future Prospects
315
125 Concluding Remarks References
316
13 Turning Points in the Evolution of Isolated Neutron Stars Magnetic Fields Ulrich Geppert 131 Introduction
319
Magnetar or Radio Pulsar?
323
133 Fallback Accretion Submergence and Rediffusion Pulsar or Radio Quiet Neutron Star?
332
Strong Fields Despite Deep Submergence?
336
HallDrift Induced Instabilities and Strongly Anisotropic Surface Temperatures?
341
136 Concluding Remarks
349
References
350
Pulsar Spin Magnetic Fields and Glitches Malvin Ruderman 141 Introduction
353
Follow the Energy
374
153 Follow the Mass
398
Pulsar Problems and Prospects
416
References
417
16 The Theory of Pulsar Winds and Nebulae John G Kirk Yuri Lyubarsky and Jerome Petri 161 Introduction
421
162 The Magnetosphere
422
163 The Wind of an Aligned Rotator
424
164 The Striped Wind
427
165 Observability of the Wind
430
166 The Termination Shock
436
167 The Nebula
440
168 Summary
446
References
447
17 Implications of HESS Observations of Pulsar Wind Nebulae Ocker C de Jager and Arache DjannatiAtai 171 Introduction
451
172 The Evolving Definition of Pulsar Wind Nebulae
452
173 Energy Scales and Lifetimes of XRay Synchrotron and VHE IC Emitting Electrons
454
174 Particle Acceleration at PWN Shocks
456
175 The Energy Dependent Cooling Radius of a PWN
460
176 Pleres Pera or Filled Bags
462
177 HESS J1825137 and the Three Princes of Serendip
463
The Prototype for Evolutionary Studies
471
179 Summary
477
References
478
18 High Energy Emission from Pulsars and Pulsar Wind Nebulae Kwong Sang Cheng 181 Introduction
480
182 Standard Pulsar Magnetospheric Models
482
183 Summary of Some Interesting Observed Results in XRays and GammaRays
485
184 Polar Cap and Slot Gap Models
487
185 Outer Gap Models
490
186 Model Fitting of the Radiation from the Crab Pulsar
502
187 A Simple Pulsar Wind Model
508
188 Applications to XRay Emission
511
189 Conclusion
517
References
518
19 Highenergy Emission from the Polar Cap and Slot Gap 191 Introduction
521
192 Acceleration Near the Polar Cap and Beyond
522
193 Electric Field Screening and Polar Cap Heating
526
194 Slot Gap Accelerator
529
195 Highenergy Radiation
530
196 Pulsar Emission at Multiwavelengths
535
197 Open Questions
539
References
540
20 Physics of Drifting Subpulses in Radio Pulsars Jan ME Kuijpers 201 Introduction
543
202 Basic Pulsar Electrodynamics
545
203 Models of Drifting Subpulses
553
204 Diocotron Instability Model
559
205 Future Prospects
571
References
573
21 Soft GammaRay Repeaters and Magnetars Kevin Hurley 211 Introduction
575
212 The Basic Facts
576
213 The Less Certain Facts
579
214 Interpretation
584
215 Magnetar Manifestations 216 Open Questions
586
217 Acknowledgments References
587
22 XRay Polarimetry and Its Potential Use for Understanding Neutron Stars Martin C Weisskopf Ronald F Elsner Victoria M Kaspi Stephen L ODell ...
589
222 Background
590
223 Scientific Basis for Neutron Star XRay Polarimetry
591
224 Instrumental Approaches
597
225 Discussion and Conclusions
615
23 GeV GammaRay Pulsar Detection David A Smith and David J Thompson 231 Introduction
621
232 GeVTeV Gamma Ray Detection
623
233 Atmospheric Cherenkov Detectors
626
234 SpaceBased Observatories
635
The GammaRay Large Area Space Telescope
638
236 Concluding Remarks
646
References
647
24 Gravitational Waves from Spinning Neutron Stars Reinhard Prix for the LIGO Scientific Collaboration 241 Introduction
650
242 Continuous Gravitational Waves from Neutron Stars
654
243 Detectors of Gravitational Waves
660
244 Data Analysis of Continuous Gravitational Waves
663
245 Current Status of the Search for Continuous GWs
677
246 Future Prospects
682
References
683
Acknowledgments
687
Index
691
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