Phasing Out Lead from Gasoline in Central and Eastern Europe: Health Issues, Feasibility, and Policies, Page 536
World Bank Publications, Jan 1, 1997 - Medical - 75 pages
World Bank Technical Paper No. 362. A radical new strategy for dealing with the problems of energy and the environment in the Sahel is being implemented in Niger. Rather than have urban wood traders go into the countryside to cut the wood and truck it back to the cities, the government is giving village communities control over their natural woodlands in return for a commitment to manage the woodlands and the production of fuelwood sustainability. This paper details the rationale, history, and prospects of this innovative energy strategy. It describes local physical and socioeconomic conditions, with particular attention to the tiger bush that forms much of Niger's natural woodland. If the strategy can be expanded, it will have potential for replication over much of the Sahel and other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa.
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ambient atmospheric lead Annex atmospheric lead concentrations Belarus Blood Lead Levels Bratislava Budapest Bulgaria capacity car fleet catalytic converters catalytic reforming CEE countries Central and Eastern content of gasoline costs declined Eastern Europe economic engine valve seats Environmental Action Programme European Union example exposure to lead Figure Gasoline Prices Gasoline Supply Haskovo human exposure Hungary impacts of lead increase industrial investments Kurdzhali lead additives lead concentrations Lead Exposure lead from gasoline lead in gasoline lead phase-out lead smelter leaded and unleaded lubricating Main Sources mean BLLs Mean Blood Lead measures MTBE naphtha Octane Number Ostrovitsa percent Phase-Out of Leaded phasing out lead Poland pollution refinery refining sector region regulations removal of lead retail price Rudnai significant Silesia Slovak Republic Slovakia Slovnaft Slovnaft Refinery soil Sources of Lead Table technical traffic ug/dl UNI GASOLINE unleaded gasoline upgrading vehicular lead emissions Washington D.C. World Bank
Page 29 - GUILLEMIN M. - Time trend and determinants of blood lead levels in a Swiss population over a transition period ( 19841993) from leaded to unleaded gasoline use.
Page 46 - Uptake of heavy metals by crops in relation to their concentration in the soil solution.
Page 29 - Europe, report for the Environmental Action Programme for Central and Eastern Europe, World Bank (Washington, DC, 1995).
Page ix - Market reforms are frequently blamed for increased corruption in the formerly communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the former Soviet Union (FSU).
Page 11 - This is important because, unfortunately, these lead scavengers, most notably ethylene dibromide, have been found to be carcinogenic in animals and have been identified as potential human carcinogens by the National Cancer Institute.15 Therefore, their removal along with the removal of lead may result in significant benefits to health.
Page 28 - Measuring Lead Exposure in Infants, Children, and Other Sensitive Populations.
Page 27 - Environment and Health in Central and Eastern Europe". A Report for the Environmental Action Programme for Central and Eastern Europe.
Page 9 - Level (g/l) relatively complex, comprising crude distillation, treating, upgrading (at least catalytic reforming and usually other processes as well), conversion (at least one conversion process and often more than one), and blending.
Page 9 - Increasing the octane of the reformate by increasing reformer severity (within the limits of sustainable operations). In some instances, achieving the necessary increase in reformer severity will call for revamping and modernizing the reformer. • Increasing...