Linguistic Borrowing in Bilingual Contexts
A number of previous approaches to linguistic borrowing and contact phenomena in general have concluded that there are no formal boundaries whatsoever to the kinds of material that can pass from one language into another. At the same time, various hierarchies illustrate that some things are indeed more likely to be borrowed than others. Linguistic Borrowing in Bilingual Contexts addresses both, by examining claims of no absolute limits and synthesizing various hierarchies. It observes that all contact phenomena are systematic, and borrowing is no exception. Regarding forms, the determining factors lie in the nature of the morphological systems in contact and how they relate to one another. Two principles are proposed to determine the nature of the systematicity and interaction: the Principle of System Compatibility (PSC), and its corollary, the Principle of System Incompatibility (PSI). Together, these principles provide a consistent account of the possibilities and limits to borrowing.
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The identification of formmeaning sets
The occurrence of Spanish content items
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abstract according acquisition adjectives adpositions agglutinating agglutinating languages agglutinating-type and/or appear associated bilingual borrowing patterns category values characteristics clitic code-switching concepts concrete consequence contact situations content items derivational discussion distinctions donor elements English example expressed FMICs form and meaning form types form-meaning sets function words fusional affixes fusional language gender grammatical grammaticalization hierarchies Hill and Hill hyponyms identify independent words indicate individual language inflectional affixes inflectional categories instance isolating-analytical Karttunen and Lockhart kinds language contact language-specific lexical items lexicon linguistic linked Malinche mapping markers Mbugu meaning types Media Lengua Mednyj Aleut Mexicano Michif mixed languages morpheme types morphological structuring morphological typology morphosyntactic matrix Muysken nouns obligatory occur panoa phonetic phonological plural possible predictions prepositions processes proficiency pronouns recipient language referents relatively represent respect result semantic sub)types semantic types social Spanish speakers specific subclasses Subsection subtypes suffixes syntactic tense typological variety various verbs versus word class
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