A student's grammar of the English language
A Students Grammar of the English Language draws on the most recent research, including new findings not only in grammar but also in the neighbouring fields of semantics, pragmatics and text linguistics. Discourse features are dealt with throughout, as well as being the theme of a major chapter entitled form sentence to text The authors are careful to point out those features of grammar which distinguish spoken from written, formal from informal, and British form American English.
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The English language
A general framework
Verbs and auxiliaries
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3rd person adjectives adjuncts adverbial antecedent apposition cataphoric cleft sentence common Compare concord conjoins conjuncts construction context contrast coordination corresponding count nouns determiner direct object disjuncts ditransitive ditransitive verbs dynamic dynamic verb element ellipsis elliptical end-focus English esp BrE especially example expressed focus function genitive girl grammatical ia/-clause implies indefinite indicated indirect speech infinitive clause inflection informal lexical main clause main verb matrix clause meaning modal auxiliaries modified negation negative nominal nonassertive noncount nonfinite nonpersonal nonrestrictive NOTE noun phrase occur operator participle passive past perfect past tense phrasal verbs plural position postmodifier preceding predication premodifier prepositional complement prepositional phrases prepositional verbs present pro-form prosodic question reference relation relative clauses restricted role semantic sense singular speaker stative structure subject complement subject-operator inversion subjunctive subordinate clause superordinate syntactic usually verb phrase verbless clauses w/i-element words zero