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armor arranged artillery assailant assailant's attack barbette barrack bastion faces bastioned system batteries besieger's besiegers bomb-proof breach caponniere casemated chambers Choumara command communication construction Cormontaigne corridor counterforts counterguard counterscarp wall covered covered-way curtain defilement demi lune demi-lune detached dimensions diminished angle direct fire distance earth earthen embrasure enceinte ditch enfilading fire engineers escalade exposed exterior ground exterior side flanks fortifications forts front garrison give glacis gorge guns height inches interior crest interior retrenchments lunette main ditch mask wall masonry method metres mortars open assault outworks parapet permanent perpendicular piers placed plane Plate plunging fire points polygonal system portion position postern principal lines projectiles rampart ravelin rear redoubt reduit reentering place-of-arms relieving arches revetted scarp salient angles scarp and counterscarp scarp gallery scarp wall secure shoulder angles sorties sufficient superior slope swept tenaille terior terre-plein tiers tion traverses troops turret usually Vauban vertical width yards
Page 17 - ... for opening and will be its greatest value, while the various distances from FL to ZTKGL will give the entire history of the width of port opening for corresponding positions of the piston. Very often, however, the width of port is less than the distance OK. In such case draw a line // parallel to LF and at a distance from it equal to the width of the port.
Page 38 - The term advanced works is applied to such works as, placed beyond the outworks, are still in defensive relations with them and the enceinte, by being so brought under the fire of either the enceinte or the outworks that the ground in advance of them will be swept by this fire ; their ditches flanked by it ; and their interior so exposed to it that, if the work were seized by an open assault, the assailant could be driven from it by this fire. They are usually in the form of redans or lunettes, and...
Page 37 - Tenaille. The tenaille is a low work placed in the reentering formed in the enceinte ditch by the curtain and flanks of the bastioned system, being isolated by a ditch between it and these parts of the enceinte. Its chief purpose is to serve as a mask, covering the scarp walls of this reentering from fire, as well as the outlets to the enceinte ditch, which are usually placed in the centre of the curtains.
Page 137 - From the preceding brief summary, it will be seen that the art of fortification, in its progress, has kept pace with the measures of the attack ; its successive changes having been brought about by changes either in the arms used by the assailant, or by the introduction of some new mode of assault. The same causes must continue to produce the same effects. At no past period has mechanical invention, in its bearing on the military art, been more active than at the present day. The...
Page 89 - That the interior space enclosed by the enceinte is greater in the polygonal trace. 2. That the faces of the enceinte are less exposed to ricochet from the greater obtuseness of the salient angles. 3. That the fire of the faces has thus a better bearing on the distant defence. 4. That, requiring fewer fronts on a given extent of line to be fortified, there will be fewer flanks and more artillery therefore disposable for the faces and curtains. 5. That, in the usual mode of attack, the besiegers will...
Page xiv - Have secure and easy means of communication for the movement of the troops, both within the defences and to the exterior. 5th. And, finally, be provided with all such accessory defensive means as the natural features of the position itself may afford, to enable the garrison to dispute with energy the occupancy by the assailant of every point both within and exterior to the defences. The defensive branch of the military engineer's art consists in...