New Solid Acids and Bases: Their Catalytic Properties
Elsevier, Feb 2, 1990 - Technology & Engineering - 364 pages
This volume summarises and reviews the enormous progress made over the past two decades in solid acids and bases, with emphasis on fundamental aspects and chemical principles.
In recent years many new kinds of solid acids and bases have been found and synthesized. The surface properties (in particular, acidic and basic properties) and the structures of the new solids have been clarified by newly developed measurement methods using modern instruments and techniques. The characterized solid acids and bases have been applied as catalysts for diversified reactions, many good correlations being obtained between the acid-base properties and the catalytic activities or selectivities. Recently, acid-base bifunctional catalysis on solid surfaces is becoming a more and more important and intriguing field of study.
It has been recognized that the acidic and basic properties of catalysts and catalyst supports play an important role in oxidation, reduction, hydrogenation, hydrocracking, etc. The effect of the preparation method and the pretreatment conditions of solid acids and bases on the acidic and basic properties, the nature of acidic and basic sites and the mechanism regarding the generation of acidity and basicity have been elucidated experimentally and theoretically. On the basis of the accumulated knowledge of solid acids and bases, it is now possible to design and develop highly active and selective solid acid and base catalysts for particular reactions.
The chemistry of solid acids and bases is now being related to and utilized in numerous areas including adsorbents, sensors, cosmetics, fuel cells, sensitized pressed papers, and others. The information presented in this book will therefore be of interest to a wide-ranging readership.
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Chapter 4 Catalytic Activity and Selectivity
Chapter 5 Deactivation and Regeneration
1-butene acetic acid amount acid and base acid catalysts acid strength acid-base acidic properties active sites adsorbed adsorption alcohol alkali alkanes alkylation allylic alumina aluminum anion aromatics atom base sites basic sites benzene binary oxides bond Brønsted acid Bull butene calcined carbenium ion carbon Catal catalysts catalytic activity cations Chem chloride coke Congr cracking deactivation dehydration dehydrogenation earth oxides Elsevier ethylene evacuation formation formed Hattori heteropoly hydration hydrocarbons hydrogen hydrolysis indicator intermediate isomerization isomers Japanese Lett Lewis acid Lewis acid sites mechanism metal oxides methanol methyl Misono mmol molecules montmorillonite mordenite niobic acid OH groups olefins phenol phosphorous oxide Phys pore pretreatment temperature Proc proton pyridine ratio reactants reaction Reproduced with permission resins selectivity shown in Fig shows silica gel silica-alumina SiO2 solid acids structure sulfate superacid surface area Table Tanabe TiO2 tion titration toluene Trans yield Yoneda zeolites ZrO2