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a-conj a-decl a-stems ACTIVE Adverbs Ahura Ahura Mazda answers to Skt aorist Avesta Bartholomae beside YAv Brugmann chiefly Compounds consonant corresponding dcln declension Derivative stems diphthongs Dual enclitic ending Epenthesis Examples feminine final vowel Gathas Geldner Gram guna GYAv haoma I.D.Abl Imperative inflection Instr internal Justi likewise masc MASCULINE Mazda MIDDLE nasal neut NEUTER Note nouns and adjectives observed in GAv occur Older palatal Optative orig Pahlavi Participle Plural prefix pres present-system pret Preterite pronominal ptcpl radical reduplication root Sandhi Sanskrit Semivowels sibilant Singular sometimes sonant spirant Stems in original strong stem strongest stem Subjunctive suffix texts thematic Third Person thou transcription unthematic variant Vendidad verb vowel vrddhi weak form weak stem Whitney words Yashts Yasna YGAv Zoroaster
Page xxxv - The Holier one of which did thus address the Evil: Neither do our minds, our teachings, nor our concepts, Nor our beliefs, nor words, nor do our deeds in sooth, Nor yet our consciences, nor souls agree in aught.
Page xiv - Surat, and there, after many discouragements and in spite of almost insurmountable obstacles, he succeeded in winning the confidence and favor of the priests, with whom he was able to communicate after he had learned the modern Persian. He gradually induced the priests to impart to him the language of their sacred works, to let him take some of the manuscripts, and even to initiate him into some of the rites and ceremonies of their religion. He stayed among the people for seven years, and then, in...
Page xxii - In determining this the text criticism by means of metrical restoration is most instructive. Almost all the oldest portions of the texts are found to be metrical ; the later, or inserted portions, are as a rule, but not always, written in prose. The grammatical test also is useful; the youngest portions generally show a decay of clear grammatical knowledge. The metrical (JathSs in '."uis respect are wonderfully pure.
Page xiii - Hyde appealed earnestly, however, to scholars to procure MSS. of the sacred books of the Parsis, and aroused much interest in the subject. In 1723 a copy of the...
Page xv - Avesta texts themselves began to be studied by Sanskrit scholars. The close affinity between the two languages' had already been noticed by different scholars; but in 1826, the more exact relation between the Sanskrit and the Avesta was shown by the Danish philologian, Rask, who had travelled in Persia and India, and who had brought back with him to the Copenhagen library many valuable MSS.
Page xiii - Isho'dad, Bishop of Hadatha, near Mosul, mention is made of the Abhfistu as having been written by Zardosht in twelve different languages. These latter allusions, though late, are all of them important, as showing the continuity during ages of the tradition of such a work as the Avesta, which contains the teachings of Zoroaster, the Prophet of Iran. All these allusions, however, it must be remembered, are by foreigners. No direct Iranian sources had been accessible. From this time, moreover, till...
Page xiv - ... take some of the manuscripts, and even to initiate him into some of the rites and ceremonies of their religion. He stayed among the people for seven years, and then in 1761, he started for his home in Europe. He stopped at Oxford before going directly to Paris, and compared his MSS. with the one in the Bodleian Library, in order to be assured that he had not been imposed upon.
Page xvi - Sanskrit key for the interpretation and meaning of words, and partly the Parsi tradition contained in the Pahlavi translation, have now been able to give us a clear idea of the Avesta and its contents, so far as the books have come down to us. Upon minor points of interpretation, of course, there are, and always •will be, individual differences of opinion. Contents, Arrangement, Extent, and Character. — The Avesta, ад we now have it, is but a small remnant of a once great literature.
Page xvii - ... on this account the MSS. often present them in their intermingled form , portions of one inserted with the other, and arranged exactly in the order in which they are to be used in the service. In this latter case the Pahlavi translation is omitted, and the collection is called the Vendidad Sadah or 'Vendidad pure' ie text without commentary, (ii) The second group comprising the minor prayers and the Vashts which the MSS. often include with these, is called the Khordah Avesta or 'small Avesta'.
Page xi - Parsis or Fire Worshipers, as they are often termed, a small community living now in India, or still scattered here and there in Persia. The original home of these worshipers and of their holy scriptures was ancient Iran, and the faith they profess was that founded centuries ago by Zoroaster (qv), one of the great religious teachers of the East. The Avesta is, therefore, an important work, preserving as it does, the doctrines of this ancient belief and the customs...