Metal Fatigue in Engineering

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John Wiley & Sons, Nov 3, 2000 - Technology & Engineering - 496 pages
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Classic, comprehensive, and up-to-date

Metal Fatigue in Engineering

Second Edition

For twenty years, Metal Fatigue in Engineering has served as an important textbook and reference for students and practicing engineers concerned with the design, development, and failure analysis of components, structures, and vehicles subjected to repeated loading.

Now this generously revised and expanded edition retains the best features of the original while bringing it up to date with the latest developments in the field.

As with the First Edition, this book focuses on applied engineering design, with a view to producing products that are safe, reliable, and economical. It offers in-depth coverage of today's most common analytical methods of fatigue design and fatigue life predictions/estimations for metals. Contents are arranged logically, moving from simple to more complex fatigue loading and conditions. Throughout the book, there is a full range of helpful learning aids, including worked examples and hundreds of problems, references, and figures as well as chapter summaries and "design do's and don'ts" sections to help speed and reinforce understanding of the material.

The Second Edition contains a vast amount of new information, including:
* Enhanced coverage of micro/macro fatigue mechanisms, notch strain analysis, fatigue crack growth at notches, residual stresses, digital prototyping, and fatigue design of weldments
* Nonproportional loading and critical plane approaches for multiaxial fatigue
* A new chapter on statistical aspects of fatigue
 

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Excellent reference book especially for engineers who have some knolwdge of fatgiue.

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NDE RESIDUAL STRESS - NEW METHOD Introduction
Internal stresses are to be considered as the following: 1) Operational strains referring to loads that the material is subject and calculated 2) Residual stresses in the material caused by heat treatments or stresses caused by welding, forging, casting, etc. The new technique is able to measure the applied load and residual stress that are balanced on the surface of the material, and in a relatively large volume, at times even the same size as the entire structures. This stress is part of the metal’s elasticity field and has a three axis spatial orientation.
Description
Elastic oscillations (also called vibrations) of an elastic material consisting of elementary masses alternately moving around their respective balance positions; these movements cause a transformation of the potential energy into kinetic energy. This phenomenon takes place due to reactions (elastic forces) that the aforementioned masses produce in opposition to elastic movements; these reactions are proportional according to Hooke’s Law to the same movements. The elastic waves that are produced propagate according to a fixed speed that depends on how rapidly the elemental masses begin to oscillate.
Elastic waves of this type are called “permanently progressive”, and they propagate at a constant speed which is absolutely independent of the speed with which the elemental masses move during the oscillating motion, and therefore also their respective oscillations. It is easy to verify that the elastic oscillations, from a material point P (in which the elemental mass m is supposedly concentrated) are harmonic. In reality, due to the fact that in any moment the elastic force that is applied to P is proportional to the distance x of the point from its position of balance 0, P acceleration (caused by the proportionality between the forces and the corresponding accelerations) is also proportional to x; this is demonstrated in the harmonic movement. The impulse creates in the metallic mass a harmonic oscillation (vibration) which is characterized by a specific frequency and by a width equal to dx (movement of the relative mass). If a constant impulse is produced in the metallic material, the elastic oscillation generated in the P point will also produce a sinusoidal wave with specific width, acceleration, speed and period values.
This wave is longitudinal when the direction of the vibration is equal to the P point movement, or is transversal, and in both cases the values of the results are identical; the only difference is the delay of the phase.
Impact with the metallic surface results an elastic deformation energy.
Ed = Ei – ( Ek + Ep )
Ei = Impact energy Ek = Kinetic energy
Ed = elastic deformation energy Ep = plastic deformation energy + lost energy
Ed = K dx = m ω dx K = constant elastic material (stiffness)
Behavior elastic metals, due to new discovery
Fig. 1 Fig.2
The system works through the accelerometer mounted with a magnetic base to generate the acceleration value of the vibrations created by the device impacting on the metal surface. The acceleration value, in combination with other parameters, permits obtaining the exact value of the residual stress or load applied in the desired point. This value will appear on the display directly in N / mm . For non-magnetic metals, wax or gel will be used to mount the accelerometer.
The system doesn’t recognize the compressive from tensile stress.
Fig .3
Quality of surface
The test method requires smooth surfaces free of oxides, paint, lubricants, oil. The indentation deep and the accurately of the test depend from the roughness of the surface. For the preparation of the surface, is necessary, must be careful
 

Contents

I
1
II
3
III
5
IV
9
V
10
VII
19
VIII
23
IX
25
LV
234
LVI
236
LVII
243
LVIII
245
LIX
257
LX
259
LXI
261
LXII
264

X
28
XII
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XIII
30
XV
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XVI
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XVII
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XVIII
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XIX
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XX
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XXI
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XXII
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XXIII
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XXIV
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XXV
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XXVI
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XXVII
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XXVIII
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XXIX
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XXXI
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XXXII
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XXXIII
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XXXIV
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XXXV
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XXXVI
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XXXVII
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XXXVIII
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XXXIX
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XL
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XLI
142
XLII
155
XLIII
160
XLIV
162
XLV
165
XLVI
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XLVII
174
XLVIII
175
XLIX
186
L
187
LI
196
LII
209
LIII
226
LIV
231
LXIII
265
LXIV
270
LXV
274
LXVII
277
LXVIII
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LXIX
291
LXX
295
LXXI
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LXXII
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LXXIII
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LXXIV
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LXXV
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LXXVI
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LXXVII
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LXXVIII
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LXXIX
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LXXX
337
LXXXI
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LXXXII
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LXXXIII
340
LXXXIV
344
LXXXV
345
LXXXVI
356
LXXXVII
364
LXXXVIII
373
LXXXIX
391
XC
401
XCI
402
XCII
406
XCIII
412
XCIV
414
XCV
423
XCVI
424
XCVII
428
XCVIII
429
C
436
CI
438
CII
440
CIII
441
CIV
443
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About the author (2000)

RALPH I. STEPHENS is Professor of Mechanical Engineering at The University of Iowa in Iowa City. ALI FATEMI is Professor of Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering at The University of Toledo in Ohio. ROBERT R. STEPHENS is Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering at The University of Idaho in Moscow, Idaho. The late HENRY O. FUCHS was Professor, and then Professor Emeritus, at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California.

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