The Phoenicians and the West: Politics, Colonies and Trade
Between the eighth and sixth centuries BC, the Phoenicians established the first trading system in the Mediterranean basin, from their homeland, in what is now Lebanon, to colonies in Cyprus, Tunisia, Sicily, Sardinia and southern Spain. The Phoenician state was able to maintain its independence, despite the territorial expansion of the Assyrians, in return for tribute provided by its western colonies. Archaeological research over the past decades, and still ongoing, has transformed our understanding of these colonies and their relationship to local communities. This updated version of Maria Eugenia Aubet's book, The Phoenicians and the West, originally published in English in 1993, incorporates research findings, an expanded bibliography, and an appendix on radiometric dating. As the only English-language synthesis on the Phoenicians, it should be welcomed by scholars and students of Mediterranean history and archaeology, and anyone interested in early trading systems.
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Who were the Phoenicians?
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The bases for the expansion in the Mediterranean
exchange mechanisms and organization
the palace and the temple
The routes of Phoenician expansion in the Mediterranean
chronology and historiography
The Phoenician colonies in the central Mediterranean
activity agricultural Almunecar amphorae ancient Andalusia archaeological record Assyrian Atlantic Baal Bronze Age burials Byblos Cadiz cal BC Canaanite Carthage Carthaginian centres classical coast coastal commercial cremation Cyprus dates Diodorus east eastern economic Egypt Egyptian eighth century BC Estremadura exchange Ezekiel Final Bronze Age founding Gadir Gaditanian gold Greek harbour Hiram Huelva Iberian Peninsula Ibiza important indigenous interior Iron Age island Israel Ithobaal ivory king of Tyre Kition Lixus Malaga Mediterranean Melqart merchant metal millennium BC monarch Morro de Mezquitilla Motya necropolis ninth century BC orientalizing palace period Phoenician Phoenician cities Phoenician colonies Phoenician establishments Phoenician expansion Phoenician pottery Phoenician settlement Phoenician trade political population port production Punic region routes sacrifice sailing Sardinia second millennium seventh century BC ships Sicily Sidon silver sixth century social Strabo Sulcis Tarshish Tartessian Tartessos temple territory tion tombs tophet Toscanos tribute Tyre Tyre's Tyrian Ugarit western Mediterranean Yahweh