Stratosphere Troposphere Interactions: An Introduction

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Jul 3, 2008 - Science - 416 pages
Stratospheric processes play a signi?cant role in regulating the weather and c- mate of the Earth system. Solar radiation, which is the primary source of energy for the tropospheric weather systems, is absorbed by ozone when it passes through the stratosphere, thereby modulating the solar-forcing energy reaching into the t- posphere. The concentrations of the radiatively sensitive greenhouse gases present in the lower atmosphere, such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone, control the radiation balance of the atmosphere by the two-way interaction between the stratosphere and troposphere. The stratosphere is the transition region which interacts with the weather s- tems in the lower atmosphere and the richly ionized upper atmosphere. Therefore, this part of the atmosphere provides a long list of challenging scienti?c problems of basic nature involving its thermal structure, energetics, composition, dynamics, chemistry, and modeling. The lower stratosphere is very much linked dynamically, radiatively,and chemically with the upper troposphere,even though the temperature characteristics of these regions are different. The stratosphere is a region of high stability, rich in ozone and poor in water - por and temperature increases with altitude. The lower stratospheric ozone absorbs the harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun and protects life on the Earth. On the other hand, the troposphere has high concentrations of water vapor, is low in ozone, and temperature decreases with altitude. The convective activity is more in the troposphere than in the stratosphere.
 

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Contents

Structure and Composition of the Lower and Middle Atmosphere
1
111 Living Earth
3
121 Formation of Homosphere and Heterosphere
5
13 Atmospheric Pressure
6
14 Atmospheric Thermal Structure
7
141 Troposphere
8
142 Stratosphere
9
143 Mesosphere
10
57 Limitations of Chapman Cycle
216
59 Ozone Photolysis
218
592 Latitude Dependence
219
5101 Ozone Destruction Due to ClOClO Reaction
222
5102 Chlorine and Nitrogen ActivationDeactivation
224
5111 Hydrogen Catalytic Loss
225
5112 Methane Photodissociation Reactions
226
5113 HOx Catalytic Cycles
228

144 Thermosphere
11
152 Plasmasphere
13
16 The Tropopause
14
161 Tropical Tropopause
16
162 Tropopause Acronyms
17
164 Ozone Tropopause
18
165 Tropopause Folds
19
166 Importance of Tropopause to Tropospheric Weather Events
20
17 Climatology of the Lower and Middle Atmosphere
21
172 Wind
22
173 Diurnal Cycle
24
174 Annual Oscillation
25
176 Interannual and Intraseasonal Oscillations
27
178 QuasiBiennial Oscillation QBO
28
179 Mean Meridional Winds
29
1711 The Polar Vortex
33
18 Other Major Events in StratosphereTroposphere Interactions
34
182 Sudden Stratospheric Warming
35
183 Arctic Oscillation
37
184 North Atlantic Oscillation
38
110 Major Greenhouse Gases in the Troposphere and Stratosphere
39
1102 Carbon Dioxide
41
1103 Water Vapor
42
1104 Water Vapor in the Stratosphere
43
111 Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere
45
112 Atmospheric Aerosols
47
1121 Watersoluble Aerosols
48
1124 Stratospheric Aerosols
49
References
51
Radiative Processes in the Lower and Middle Atmosphere
55
221 Electromagnetic Energy
56
222 Energy of Radiation
58
223 Photometry and Radiometry
59
224 Blackbody Radiation
60
225 Atmospheric Scattering
64
227 Reflectivity and Transmissivity
66
228 Radiance Temperature
67
2210 Albedo
68
2211 The Greenhouse Effect
69
23 Radiative Transfer
71
232 Schwarszchilds Equation
72
233 Solar Absorption and Atmospheric Heating
73
234 Translation of Energy Deposits to Heating Rates
76
235 Infrared Heating and Cooling
77
236 Radiative Heating due to Absorption
78
24 Solar Radiation and Earths Atmosphere
79
241 Absorption of Solar Radiation
80
242 Atmospheric Window
83
243 Attenuation of Solar Radiation in the Stratosphere and Troposphere
85
25 The Atmosphere and Its Radiative Processes
87
251 Radiative Processes in the Troposphere
88
26 Stratospheric Cooling
90
262 Stratospheric Cooling Rates
91
263 Other Influences
93
27 Effects of Solar Activity on Stratosphere and Troposphere
95
Problems and Questions
98
References
100
Dynamics of the Troposphere and Stratosphere
103
32 Basic Quantities of Atmospheric Dynamics
104
323 Geopotential Height
106
33 Fundamental Laws of Conservation
107
332 Equation of Continuity Conservation of Mass
109
333 Conservation of Energy
113
34 Thermodynamics of Dry Atmosphere
115
342 Atmospheric Stability
116
343 Brunt Vaisala Frequency
117
344 Thermodynamic Energy Equation
118
35 Primitive Equations
120
352 Horizontal Equation of Motion
121
362 Ageostrophic Wind
123
364 Relation between Geostrophic Wind and Gradient Wind
124
365 Thermal Wind
125
366 Applications of Thermal Wind
126
367 Barotropic and Baroclinic Atmospheres
127
37 Circulation Vorticity and Divergence
128
372 Vorticity
129
374 Vorticity in Natural Coordinate t n z System
130
376 Absolute Vorticity
131
38 Conserved Properties
132
39 Vorticity Equation
133
391 Vorticity Equation in x y p Coordinates
134
392 Simplified Vorticity Equation
135
394 Quasigeostrophic Potential Vorticity Equation
136
310 Mean Meridional Circulation of the Middle Atmosphere
137
3101 Zonally Averaged Circulation
138
311 Annual Mean Energetics
143
Problems and Questions
145
References
147
Waves in the Troposphere and Stratosphere
149
43 Basic Properties of Waves
150
44 Classification of Waves
153
451 Acoustic Sound Waves
154
452 Lamb Waves
156
454 Rossby Waves
163
46 Atmospheric Gravity Waves
170
461 Pure Internal Gravity Waves
171
462 Inertiagravity Waves
176
463 Wave Breaking
180
47 Planetary Wave Forcing
181
48 Equatorial Waves
183
481 Kelvin Waves
184
482 Mixed Rossby Gravity Waves
188
49 Vertical Propagating Atmospheric Waves
191
491 Vertically Propagating Kelvin Waves
192
492 Vertically Propagating Rossby Gravity Waves
193
410 Energetics of Vertical Propagating Waves
194
4101 EliassenPalm Approach
195
4102 CharneyDrazin Theory
198
4103 Lindzens Theory
200
411 Mechanism of QuasiBiennial Oscillation
201
4111 Solar QBO Connection
202
4113 Limitations of the Planetary Wave Theory
203
412 Sudden Stratospheric Warming
204
Problems and Questions
206
Chemical Processes in the Stratosphere and Troposphere
209
52 The Absorption Cross Section
210
531 FirstOrder Reactions
211
533 ThreeBody Reaction
212
55 Equation of Continuity
213
5114 NOx Catalytic Cycles
229
5115 Temperature Dependence ofNOx Catalytic Reactions
231
5116 Sources of Chlorine
234
5117 Chlorine Catalytic Reactions
235
5118 Clx Catalytic Reactions and the Antarctic Ozone Hole
236
5119 Sources of Bromine
237
51110 Brx Catalytic Reactions
238
512 Stratospheric Particles
239
5121 Sulfate Aerosols
240
5131 Sources of Chemical Components in the Troposphere
241
5133 Tropospheric Methane
243
514 Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate
244
515 Nobel Prize in Atmospheric Chemistry
248
Problems and Questions
250
References
251
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion and Antarctic Ozone Hole
253
62 Factors Affecting Stratospheric Ozone Variability
254
621 Chemical Aspects
255
622 Dynamical Processes
257
624 Atmospheric Transport
259
626 Volcanic Eruptions
261
627 Aerosol Effects
262
63 Basis of Ozone Depletion
263
632 Chemical Processes Leading to Polar Ozone Depletion
264
633 Production of Chlorine Radicals
265
641 Chlorine Compounds
267
642 Chlorofluorocarbons in the Stratosphere
268
651 Discovery of Antarctic Ozone Hole
270
652 Theories of Ozone Hole
273
654 Nitrogen Oxide Theory
274
655 Heterogeneous Chemistry Theory
275
661 Wind Circulation in Polar Vortex
276
662 Polar Night Jet and Polar Vortex
277
663 Temperatures
278
664 South Polar Cold Temperatures During the Winter
279
665 Potential Vorticity
280
666 Heating
282
669 Chemistry of the Polar Vortex
283
67 Structure and Dynamics of the Antarctic Ozone Hole
284
672 Vertical Ozone Structure
286
68 Significance of 220 DU Contour
288
69 Severity of Ozone Depletion
289
691 Ozone Hole Area
290
610 Annual Cycle of Antarctic Ozone
291
611 Anomalous 2002 Antarctic Ozone Hole
292
6111 Major Stratospheric Warming in Southern Hemisphere
293
612 Arctic Ozone Hole
294
613 Montreal Protocol
296
6132 Montreal Protocol Projections
297
614 Present Status of Ozone Depletion
298
615 Ozone Layer in Future
299
6151 Recovery Stages of Global Ozone
301
Questions and Exercises
303
References
304
Transport Processes in the Stratosphere and Troposphere
307
721 Low Ozone in Tropical Stratosphere
309
722 Circulation in Tropics
310
724 Circulation in Extratropics
311
725 CFC Transport
313
726 Existence of BrewerDobson Circulation
314
728 Hemispheric Differences in BrewerDobson Circulation
315
73 Atmospheric Waves and Tracer Transport
316
731 Movement
317
733 Wave Transport
319
735 Wave Influence on Mean Circulation
320
751 QBO Circulation
321
Influence of QBO
322
76 Tropospheric Meridional Circulation
324
78 Age of Air in the Stratosphere
325
Questions and Exercises
327
References
328
StratosphereTroposphere Exchange
331
82 Transport Across the Tropopause
334
83 BrewerDobson Circulation and StratosphereTroposphere Exchange
336
831 Tropical Upwelling
337
832 Changes in Tropical Tropopause Layer
338
833 Exchange Through the Tropical Transitional Layer
339
834 Changes in Extratropical Tropopause Layer
340
841 Blocking Anticyclones Highs
341
843 Tropopause Folds
342
85 Exchange Processes Near the Tropical Tropopause
343
851 FreezeDrying
344
852 Atmospheric Tape Recorder
345
853 Stratospheric Fountain
346
854 Diabatic Circulation
348
the Extratropical Pump
350
Questions and Exercises
353
References
354
Stratospheric Influence on Tropospheric Weather and Climate
357
92 Radiative Forcing of StratosphereTroposphere Interactions
358
93 WaveInduced Interactions
360
932 Gravity Waves
361
94 Role of QuasiBiennial Oscillation in Coupling Process
363
941 Effects of the QBO in the Stratosphere and Mesosphere
364
942 QBO Effects on the Troposphere
365
951 Stratospheric Warmings and Downward Control
366
96 Stratospheric Polar Vortex and Tropospheric Weather
367
97 StratosphereTroposphere Coupling and Downward Propagation
368
971 Arctic Oscillations Impact on Climate
369
972 Annular Modes
373
98 Anthropogenic Effect
375
99 Impact of Ozone Changes on Surface Climate
377
910 Stratosphere Affects Its Own Variability
380
9111 Stratospheric QBO and Monsoon
381
912 Tropical Convection and Water Vapor Forcing
385
913 Tropospheric Composition
386
914 Widening of the Tropical Belt
387
915 Solar Activity Forcing on Stratosphere Troposphere Coupling
390
916 Stratospheric Aerosols of Volcanic Origin
392
917 Future Scenario
393
Questions and Exercises
394
References
395
Acronyms
401
List of Symbols
405
Table of Physical Constants
409
Answers to Selected Problems
411
Index
413
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About the author (2008)

K. Mohanakumar is the holder of Masters degree in Meteorology (1979) and Ph. D. degree in Atmospheric Science (1994). In 1995 he joined as Lecturer in Cochin University of Science and Technology (CUSAT), India, for post graduate teaching in Atmospheric Science. He worked as a Visiting Scientist in 1990-1991with the Stratospheric Research Group in Freie University Belin, Germany under the support of EU Commission. At present, he is a Dean of Faculty of Marine Sciences, CUSAT, India.

The author is a member of Interenational Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG), Interanational Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS), International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), Climate and Weather of the Sun Earth System (CAWSES), Solar Terrestrial Energy Program (STEP).

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