The Fortifications of Gibraltar 1068-1945
Gibraltar is not only an archetypal fortress, preserving in its dominating topography and walls, bastions and emplacements a rich testament to extended periods of human conflict, but it is also a unique record of the evolution of the sciences of fortification and associated defensive structures over a period of more than six centuries. Gibraltar has a complex and varied military history, lying as it does at the gateway to the Mediterranean and the meeting points of the continents of Europe and Africa. Its history, always shaped by its unique combination of strategic position and topography, begins in ancient times with successive occupations by Phoenicians, Carthaginians and Romans. It then passed through Arab, Castilian and Spanish hands, and has been a British possession since 1704. The Rock served as a base for Nelson's fleet in the Napoleonic Wars and, in World War II, for the Royal Navy's Task Force 'H' and as as a vital stopping place for supply convoys plying to and from the East through the Suez Canal and supporting the Allied effort in the Mediterranean Theater. An unprecedented amount of tunnelling took place on Gibraltar, making it a veritable warren that housed aircraft hangars, ammunition stores, hospitals and even a secret chamber (the Stay-Behind Cave) that was to be manned as an observation post in the event of a hostile takeover.
What people are saying - Write a review
We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.
18th century al-Andalus Almohad artillery attack Baluarte Battle of Trafalgar bombardment British built cannon capture Casemates castle Charles V Wall cliffs constructed counterguards Courtesy curtain wall defences of Gibraltar demi-bastion Devil's Tongue ditch Dockyard embrasures emplacement enemy enfilade engineer Europa excavated facilities fire Force H fortifications fortress galleries garrison Gate gatehouse Gibraltar Museum glacis Granada gun position harbour HMS Victory Islamic isthmus King's Bastion land Landport later Line Wall Luis Bravo magazine medieval Mediterranean Merinids Mole Montagu Bastion mortar mounted Muralla de San naval north face North Front northern defences Operation Pedestal Operation Torch Orange Bastion parapet photograph platforms present-day Prince projectile protect Puerta ramparts Reduto de San retired batteries RMLs Rock Rooke Royal Royal Gibraltar Regiment ships siege of Gibraltar slope South Bastion South Mole Spain Spanish stone Tower of Homage tunnels upper Windmill Hill World World War II Yard