A Complete Latin Grammar for the Use of Students
Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009 - 534 pages
. 1860: ... the sentence, Eneas filius fait Anchisae, might become the object of the verb dixit, 'he said, ' and we should then write, dixit, 'he said, '--what? JEneam Anchisae filium esse, 'that iEneas was the son of Anchises'--that is what he said, or the object of his speaking (see above, 128, VIII.). But although the accusative represents the subject of the verb in the infinitive mood, it cannot be said that its use is subjective, for the whole sentence in which it appears is objective, and is governed by the main verb, so that the accusative, in this as in other usages, is a secondary predicate according to the principle explained above (125). The idiomatic usages of the Latin accusative fall into two main classes, which may be distinguished by a reference to this relation between the accusative and the nominative; for the Latin accusative denotes either (A) the immediate object of the action, or, as we might say, the patient as opposed to the agent; or (B) the object to which the action refers, or which defines the immediate object or patient. The distinction between the accusative of the immediate object and the accusative of reference depends upon the following simple consideration. In the former instance, the accusative becomes the nominative when the governing verb is changed from active to passive; but in the latter instance, the accusative is retained even with the passive. Thus we have an accusative of the immediate object in dux urbem mi/itibus diripiendam tradidit, because this may be expressed in the passive by urbs militibus a duce diripienda tradita est; and so also when there is the apposition of a secondary predicate; as invidiam difortunae comitem dederunt, which is expressed in the passive by invidia jbrtunae a dts comes data est. But we have an accusative of reference in rogo te sententiam, because the passive expression would be rogaris sententiam. (A) Accusative of the Immediate Object. 145 (a) All transitive verbs, whether their form be...
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