The Green Tiger: The Costs of Ecological Decline in the Philippines
Once famous for the beauty of its white beaches, reef-ringed islands, and lush forests, today the Philippines is known as an example of the deep costs of ecological decline. In less than a generation, large and small users alike felled the forests, shattered the coral reefs, and over-fished the oceans. The rapid harvest of the once-abundant resources has brought environmental changes: droughts, deadly flash floods, and the collapse of vital fisheries. The consequences have reverberated throughout the country. As the rural economy weakened, millions migrated to the cities, overwhelming the infrastructure and deepening the problems of urban health. Pioneering efforts have been launched to curtail the environmental damage and manage the resources that remain. Trained as a botanist and plant ecologist, writer Barbara Goldoftas traveled extensively throughout the archipelago to document the loss of the natural resources, the dramatic human costs, and efforts to reverse the decline. Along the forest frontier, she met villagers whose fields had been washed away by mudslides and church workers risking their lives to defend the dwindling forests. In coastal villages, she spoke with fishermen who, having watched their catches diminish with the dying reefs, enforced the boundaries of no-take zones. In towns and villages alike, she interviewed local politicians and leaders of non-governmental organizations working to combine conservation and development and keep their communities intact. Written about a country often described as an environmental worst-case scenario, The Green Tiger offers an unusually close look at the consequences of ecological decline and determined efforts to reverse them. It argues that, rather than destroying a natural resource base, development should integrate conservation and economic growth. It gives a realistic, but optimistic vision of the long process of "nation-building" that is the backdrop of environmental work in a developing country and a new democracy.
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agrarian reform Apo Island archipelago Asia barangay Baviera beneﬁt Bolinao Bukidnon CARP cement coastal management coasts conﬂicts conservation corals country’s CPPAP CRMP decline deforestation DENR Despite difﬁcult early ecological economic ecosystems El Nido environment environmental families farm farmers Father Neri ﬁelds Filipino ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬁsh ﬁsheries ﬁshermen ﬁve ﬂoods forests funding government ofﬁcials Haribon houses industry islands jeepney Kitanglad KPPSK land landowners Lingayen Gulf lived loggers logging lumad Luzon Malalag Malalag Bay Manila Water Marcos Marine Reserves Maynilad mayor military Mindanao Mount Kitanglad mountains MWSS natural resources Negros Negros Occidental NGOs Nido Nilda ofﬁce ofthe Philippines organizations Ormoc Palawan Pangasinan Pasig PCSD People’s percent pesos plant political pollution Press protected areas Quezon City reef reported rice river roads rural provinces San Fernando species squatters sugar Sustainable Development There’s tion tourism town trees tropical urban villages World Bank zone