## Scale Development: Theory and ApplicationsA best-seller in its First Edition, |

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### Contents

Overview | 1 |

General Perspectives on Measurement | 2 |

Historical Origins of Measurement in Social Science | 3 |

Later Developments in Measurement | 5 |

The Role of Measurement in the Social Sciences | 6 |

Summary and Preview | 13 |

Understanding the Latent Variable | 14 |

Latent Variable as the Presumed Cause of Item Values | 15 |

Administer Items to a Development Sample | 88 |

Evaluate Scale Length | 90 |

Optimize the Items | 96 |

Exercises | 100 |

Factor Analysis | 102 |

An Overview of Factor Analysis | 103 |

A Conceptual Description of Factor Analysis | 108 |

Interpreting Factors | 126 |

Path Diagrams | 16 |

Further Elaboration of the Measurement Model | 20 |

Parallel Tests | 21 |

Alternative Models | 24 |

Exercises | 26 |

Reliability | 27 |

Reliability Based on Correlations Between Scale Scores | 39 |

Generalizability Theory | 44 |

Summary | 47 |

Validity | 49 |

CriterionRelated Validity | 50 |

Construct Validity | 53 |

What About Face Validity | 57 |

Exercises | 58 |

Guidelines in Scale Development | 60 |

Generate an Item Pool | 63 |

Determine the Format for Measurement | 70 |

Have the Initial Item Pool Reviewed by Experts | 85 |

Consider Inclusion of Validation Items | 87 |

Principal Components Versus Common Factors | 127 |

Confirmatory Factor Analysis | 131 |

Using Factor Analysis in Scale Development | 133 |

Sample Size | 136 |

Conclusion | 137 |

An Overview of Item Response Theory | 138 |

Item Difficulty | 139 |

Item Discrimination | 142 |

Item Characteristic Curves | 144 |

Complexities of IRT | 147 |

When to Use IRT | 149 |

Conclusions | 152 |

Measurement in the Broader Research Context | 154 |

After Scale Administration | 158 |

Final Thoughts | 160 |

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167 | |

About the Author | 171 |