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Some basic facts
The superconducting state
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alloys alternating current atoms BCS theory behavior circuit coherence length coil condensation constant Cooper pairs Cooper-pair density critical current density critical field cryotron cylinder dependence detected determined direct current effect electrical electrical resistance employed energy gap Equation equilibrium experiments external field Fermi energy field Bc field strength Figure film flow flux quantum flux tubes free electrons geometry Gibbs function hard superconductors heat high frequency illustrated in Fig increase interaction Josephson junction lattice layer lead Lett low temperatures magnetic field magnetic flux magnetization curve material measurement metal normal conductor normalconducting oxide particles penetration persistent current phase difference phonons Phys pinning centers possible quantitative regions resistance result sample schematically screening current Section Shubnikov phase single electrons structure super supercon superconducting magnets supercurrent surface switching thermodynamic thickness thin tion transition temperature tunnel junction tunneling current type II superconductor voltage wave wire zero