MRI for Radiographers
One of the most important developments in diagnostic imaging over the last decade has been magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Its ability to differentiate between tissues and give patholog ical information about diseases has led to earlier treatment, thus increasing the likelihood of recovery. The images produced using this technique give superb anatomical detail in any plane and are obtained without the use of ionising radiation. The increased use of MRI has presented radiographers with a number of challenges, and because we are no longer dealing with ionising radiation understanding the subject can some times be confusing. We hope that this text will help radiographers and student radiographers to further their knowledge and unravel the mysteries of MRI. Philip T. English Christine Moore Contents 1 Basic Principles . . . . . . . . . 1 History ..... . 1 Atomic Theory . . 1 Magnetic Theory . 2 Resonance 4 Relaxation. . . . . 5 2 Instrumentation........ 9 The Magnet .. 9 Shim Coils ........... . 12 Gradient Coils ......... . 13 RF Transmitter/Receiver Coils. 14 The Computer . . . . . . . . . 18 3 Pulse Sequences. . . . . . . . . 19 Saturation Recovery (Partial Saturation) 19 Spin Echo (SE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Multiple Spin Echo. . . . . . . . . . . 22 Fast Spin Echo (FSE) or Turbo Spin Echo (TSE). 23 Inversion Recovery (IR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Gradient Echo .................. . 28 Magnetisation Transfer Contrast Imaging (MTC) 34 4 Image Production. . . . . . . .
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256 reconstruction matrix 2DFT 3DFT acquired acquisition allows angiography arrow artifacts axial plane blood brain cardiac cardiac cycle cause chemical shift Contrast Enhancement coronal plane demonstrating detected echo image echo pulse sequence effect encoding fast spin echo ferromagnetic field strength flip angle frequency frequency-encoding fringe fields gradient echo sequence haematoma high signal Hyperintense i.v. contrast medium image TR 450 Isointense Larmor equation Larmor frequency lesion longitudinal magnet room magnetic field main magnetic field motion Patient Positioning phase phase-encoding direction precess produce proton density protons pulse sequence radiofrequency radiofrequency pulse reduce relaxation rephasing result RF pulse RF shielding sagittal plane saturation scanner Scanning Planes sensitive shimming showing signal intensity signal loss slice thickness spin echo pulse spin echo sequence STIR sequence surface coil T1-weighted image T1-weighted image TR T2-weighted sequences tion tissue transverse magnetisation tumours vascular vessels visualisation voxel wraparound