Personality Traits

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Cambridge University Press, Dec 4, 2003 - Psychology - 493 pages
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This second edition of the bestselling textbook Personality Traits is an essential text for students doing courses in personality psychology and individual differences. The authors have updated the volume throughout, incorporating the latest research in the field, and added three new chapters on personality across the lifespan, health and applications of personality assessment. Personality research has been transformed by recent advances in our understanding of personality traits. This book reviews the origins of traits in biological and social processes, and their consequences for cognition, stress, and physical and mental health. Contrary to the traditional view of personality research as a collection of disconnected theories, Personality Traits provides an integrated account, linking theory-driven research with applications in clinical and occupational psychology. The new format of the book, including many additional features, makes it even more accessible and reader friendly.
 

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Ideal for Psych207 University of Auckland

Contents

The trait concept and personality theory
3
A brief history of traits
7
Psychometric approaches to identifying personality dimensions
12
the 16PF and other questionnaires
18
the Big Five or the Gigantic Three?
21
Current conceptions of personality structure
25
Conclusions
37
Persons situations and interactionism
39
Social psychological trait
229
Conclusions
235
Consequences and applications
239
Stress
241
Stress and physiological reactivity
243
Neuroticism and stress vulnerability
245
mediator and moderator hypotheses
253
a selfregulative perspective
264

Are traits universal across cultures?
52
Conclusions
57
Personality across the life span
58
Temperament
64
longitudinal studies
70
Conclusions
75
Stable traits and transient states
77
Traitstate models
78
affect mood and selfreport arousal
85
additional state domains
94
empirical studies
97
Conclusions
109
Alternatives to trait theory
112
Traits in psychodynamic theory
113
contemporary studies
118
Humanistic and phenomenological approaches
122
Conclusions
130
Causes of personality traits
133
Genes environments and personality traits
135
Twin studies
141
Other research designs
145
Genes environment and multiple personality traits
149
Further issues in genetic research
152
Molecular genetic studies of personality
161
Conclusions
164
The psychophysiology of traits
166
Groundplans for neuropsychological theory
168
an outline and examples
174
towards an integrated theory?
184
Personality and sensitivity to motivational stimuli
193
where next?
199
Conclusions
201
The social psychology of traits
204
socialpsychological perspectives
210
Consistencies in social knowledge and cognition
220
agreeableness and social behaviour
227
Conclusions
270
Traits and health
273
Heart disease
276
Cancer
279
Neuroticism as a risk factor for multiple diseases
283
Stress and health
284
Models of psychosomatic illness
290
Conclusions
292
Abnormal personality traits?
294
Personality disorders concept and classification
295
Problems with personality disorders in current categorical systems
300
Are there abnormal personality traits?
306
integrating psychiatry and differential psychology?
317
Conclusions
322
Personality performance and informationprocessing
325
Theories of personality and performance
329
Extraversionintroversion and performance
335
Trait anxiety neuroticism and performance
344
Personality and intelligence
350
Conclusions
355
Applications of personality assessment
357
Educational and clinical applications
368
Personality and job performance
374
further applications
378
Emotional intelligence
382
Conclusions
388
Conclusions
391
Integration with mainstream psychology
393
Applications of trait theory
395
Towards a theory of traits
396
Traits and the coherence of personality theory
406
Conclusions
409
References
411
Author Index
482
Subject Index
487
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About the author (2003)

Gerald Matthews is Professor of Psychology at the University of Cincinnati and has previously held faculty positions at the Universities of Aston and Dundee. He has co-authored several volumes, including Attention and Emotion: A Clinical Perspective (1994) which won the 1998 British Psychological Society Book Award, and has published many articles in the area of personality research.

Ian J. Deary is Professor of Differential Psychology at the University of Edinburgh. He is also a registered medical practitioner and member of the Royal College of Psychiatrists. He has written extensively on personality and intelligence and won the 2002 British Psychological Society Book Award for Looking Down on Human Intelligence (2000). He holds the Royal Society-Wolfson Research Merit Award, 2002-2007.

Martha C. Whiteman is a Lecturer in Psychology at the University of Edinburgh. Her research within personality and public health sciences has been published in The Lancet, Psychosomatic Medicine and Personality and Individual Differences.

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